You aren't allowed to bring a calculator into the SAT II, nor are you allowed to bring in a sheet AP Physics B – Practice Workbook – Book 1. A Text-book of Practical Physics. By K. E. Article · Info & Metrics · eLetters · PDF . Loading The first page of the PDF of this article appears above. Science: 2 Practical Physics. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PERFORMING EXPERIMENTS. 1. Before performing an experiment, the student should first thoroughly.

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This website is for teachers of physics in schools and colleges. It is a collection of experiments that demonstrate a wide range of physical concepts and. PDF | On Feb 18, , Harry Pillay and others published Practical Physics for A level. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Dec 3, , John M. Long and others published Physics Practicals for Distance Education in an Undergraduate Engineering Course.

Do not panic if the context of the practical experiment appears unfamiliar. Where appropriate, the question paper will tell you exactly what to do and how to do it. If you find yourself in real difficulty setting up your practical equipment you may ask your supervisor for help, although you may lose one or more marks for this. When recording readings from an measuring instrument except metre rule, vernier calipers and micrometre screw gauge , the number of decimal places used should be equal to half of the smallest division of scale of the instrument For example, if the instrument's smallest division of scale is 0.

For digital instruments except digital stopwatch , the number of decimal places used 2 should be the same as that shown on the display. The reading should be recorded to the nearest 0. In all cases, do not give more or less number of decimal places. You must also write the correct units. To save time, draw a single table for your results before taking any readings and enter your readings in the table as you take them so that you do not waste time having to copy them later.

In most cases, you should take each reading twice, then calculate and record the mean of the 2 readings. Some questions are worth 2 marks, which means you get one mark for repeating. Ensure that you show in your answer both readings and the calculation of their mean. However, for the part in Question 1 which requires you to record readings in a table, questions that carry only 1 mark and questions which state that repeated readings are not required, you only need to take each reading once and record it straight away.

All the raw readings of a particular quantity should be recorded to the same number of decimal places which should in turn be consistent with the uncertainty in the readings. Each column heading in your table must contain both a quantity and its unit.

When plotting a graph, draw both the horizontal and vertical axis on the graph paper correctly. Label both axis correctly and state the unit if any. Use a suitable scale for both axis and do not use any odd scales such as Both the x-axis and y-axis need not start from 0.

The scales should be chosen such that the points plotted on graph cover at least half of the graph paper. The markings on the scales should not be more than 3 large squares apart. The points O and S are interchangeable Le. If this period through G parallel to the axis of oscillation through O, from the Parallel Axes Theorem, of oscillation is T.

A bar pendulum, a small metal wedge, a beam vl In the same way, suspend the bar at holes 2,3" The vii When the middle point of the bar is passed, it will turn apparatus ordinarily used in the round so that the end B is now on the top- But continue laboratory is a rectangular bar AB of measuring distances from the point of suspension to the end brass about I meter long.

A series of A holes is drilled along the bar at S viii Now calculate the tirne-period T from the tisre intervals of cm Fig. By recorded for 5O oscillations. B being the centr: Next focus the Alternate method of measuring flre length of ttre pendulum. In that case also there will be two sets of readings- iv Set the bar to oscillate taking care to see that the one with the end A at the top and again with the end B at amplitude of oscillations is not more than bo.

Note the time the top. Now draw a graph with the centre of gravity of AB passes the inter-section of the cross-wires in the same the bar at the origin which is put at the rriddle of the paper direction. Put the length rneasured towards the end v Measure the length from the end A of the bar to the top A to the left and that measured towards the end B to tlre of the first hole i.

O2 From graph c. G '-''Distance ol knife-eds. Corresponding time-period from the graph. Per sec2 f Discussions: The Kater's viii For the lengths corresponding to the points A,B, C and pendulum consists of a metal rod about one D the period is the sarne. TVro steel knife-edges of suspension and the centre of oscillation coincide.

In a Kater's pendulum if 11 and 12 be distances of and the periods of oscillation of the pend- two points from the centre of gravity of the bar and on ulum about k1 and k2 can be made equal. The T is given by pendulum is made to oscillate about one of the knife-edges from a rigid support. It can, however, be shown in the following way that ii Focus the cross-wires of the telescope the time-periods T1 and T2 about these two points need not and rotate the collar of the tube till the be exactly equal.

The two times will generally differ. But If the difference between these two times No of. Time for 5O oscillations increases,. I vi Then make the final adjustment by sliding w2 until the 2 time for 5O oscillations about the two knife-edges are very 3 etc.

Suspend the pendulum about the knife-edge k1 and Time for 5O Time for 5O carefully record the time for 5O oscillations. Repeat the process 5 times. Then suspend the pendulum about the No.

The mean time-period about k1 is T1 and that knife-edge k1 knife-edge k2 about k2 is T2. I viii Carefully remove the pendulum from the support 2 without disturbing any of the weights.

Place the rod system 3 on the wedge and find out the C. Measure 4 accurately the distance 11 of k1 from C. Hence the distance between the two knife-edges is T1 and T2 should be nearly equal. D Distance befioeen the tuo knide-edges. Then calculate 'g' from the relation given in eqn. If one end of a clean capillary tube iiil Telescope may not be used in the earlier part of the of fine bore is dipped into a liquid, the liquid rises up the adjustments.

The component of T acting vertically upwards is Tcos0 l. Whal ls ocrrnllolnd. Whtch Is superlor-compound pendulum or a simple pendulum? This is the upward force The ideal conditions of a strnple pendulum cannot be attained due to surface tension of the ln practice. In a eompound pendulum the length of an liquid. The compound acting downwards is equal to v x p pendulum osctllates as a whole and due to its heavy mass, goes x g where p is the density of the on osctllating for a long tlme.

Hence compound pendulum ls Fig-. This can be written as centre of gravity of the pendulum such that the perlods of oscillation of the pendulum about these polnts are equal. The dtstance between the centre of suspenslon and the centre of osclllatlon is called the length of the equlvalent stmple Since the column is in equilibrium the upward force due to pendulum" surface tension must support the weight of the liquid 5- What are frv deJds oJthe crlrmpound pendulum?

For water 0 is zero and hence cos9 is unity. As a result the object p will appear to move In many experiments on light, one usually comes across towards the left while the object e appears to move towards th e r.

Now if the eye is moved Thus it can be seen I that as the eye moues, I towards the right, P will appear to have the more distant oJ moved in the same direction as the eye the htso objects uiz. Q moues Ill appears to lie in one line with P and Q. This apparent change of position of Therefore, by the V distant objects, due to the actual change Fig. The separation P is far away from the eye. Hence to eliminate parallax between position. It can be easily moved away from the eye le.

This means that the two objects are Fig.

To begin with' if the eye is at to coincide with the image despite movements of the the position E on the line EQP then the two rays QE and PE observer's eye. The process is illustrated in Fig.

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Tl-rese stands which carry the object' screen, lens or mirror, may be fixed at any desired height' They can be fixed at any position on the bench and their positions can be read from the scale fitted along the length of the horizontal bed of the optical bench' with the help of eye to righl eyc ctntrol ctc to lcft an index mark which is engraved on the base of each stand adjacent to the scale.

The stands can also be turned about the vertical axis and in such cases they can even be moved horizontally perpendicular to the length of the optical bench. The object screen has a hole at the centre which is fitted with a cross-wire.

This cross-wire when illuminated by a candle or an electric lamp serves the purpose of the object' The image screen is nothing but a ground glass or a white Fig.

Lenses are held in lens holders of to side, the pins appear to cross the lens surface as various forms, one of which is shown separately in Fig.

When indicatedinthetopdiagramofFig. Thebottomdiagram working with an oPtical showsthepositionofnoparallax. Whenthispositionis bench, it is the actual found, the pin Q is in the same place as its image P which has to be located.

As explained above, it can be seen that the distance between the pin O Fig. In order to find the actual distance, a correction known as index correction must be carried out in all optical experiments using an optical bench' The procedure for index correction is as follows: With a metre scale measure accurately the length I of a metal rod with pointed ends, provided for this purpose' Then hold it by a suitable clamp parallel to the length of the optical bench between, say, the object and the lens, so that Fig.

Let the apparent concaDo-conuetc Lens is concave and the olher one is convex. A concave lens is thicker at its edges but thinner at its Then the index correction 1' for the object distance middle. It has a diverging effect on the rays. So the correction convex and the other one is concave. Certaln terms connected with erperiments tnvolvtngl 5. Any transparent refracting medium bounded Principal axis: The surface of the lens on which light by two surfaces of which at least one is curved is called a is incident is known as the fvst sudace of the lens and the lens.

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In case of mo- the edges but thicker at the middle. It has a converging st lenses, these surfa- effect on the rays. A converging lens, again, may be of the ces are cunred and are following three forms: The centres refracting surfaces are convex i. A straight line passing Lhrough the cenlres o[ curvature o[ the tr,vo surfaces o[ the lens crocz is called the pnncipal axts of the lens. If one of the sur[ace is plane, the axis is a straight line normal to the surlace drawn through the centre of curvature of the other surface.

The distances oc1 and oc2 are known as the radii of curvature 11 and 12 of the first and second surface l. The points of intersection of the two surfaces of the lens with its principal axis are called the poles P,P of a b Fig.

A lens lras two principal an image, real or uirtual, would be Jormed Jor an object at inJinitg. The distance of Lhis point from the centre of the foci. The First principaliocrts Fr is a point on the principal lens, i.

When the medium on both sides of the lens is same as in th-e case of a Lens placed" tn air , the two Jocal Lengths are numericallg equal but oPPosite in sign. Hence unless l. It is a ot i4finitg.

The distance of this point from the centre of the point on the Princi- lens, i.

The ray passing ilrrough this point is rer-ractid the principa. L planes. In the case of an eclui-conuex Lens o-f rviUrout undergoing an angular deviation; it just suffers a glass, hauing a reJracLiue index oJ approximatelg t. S, lhe Iateral shift. The lateral shift between the incident and emergent is the l. Thus it is aduisable rays, increases with the thickness of the lens. In the that u: Sign convention: In every optical system, the derivation Conjugate foci: The lenses used in tle taboratory are generallg thick.

These distances are uector quantities and", But tlrc aboue relation usil atso hotd. It is prouided the distances on either sid. The follou,ing sel of conventions r,vhich agree rvith the usual convention of Cartesian seL o-f co-ordtnales used in co- lens ol large focal length' Pouer can' LhereJore' be laken as ordinate geometrey as shorvn in Fig.

A convex lens of focal lengtlt trauelling Jrom leJt to right. The object distance OA is negative length of a given convex lreater than forr times the focal the lens while the image dislance OP is positive.

The size of the lens, then there will be two different positions of on the object AB is positive while the size of the image is negative. Magnification m is defined as the ratio of the size of the image to that of the object. The power of a lens is defined as its ability to converge a beam of light and is measured by the amount of convergence it can produce to a parallel beam of light.

Since a convex lens produces conDergence, its power is taken as positiue. The power of a concave lens, which produces diuergence opposite oJ conuergence , is, therefore, taken as negatiue.

Thus a convex lens of small focal length has greater power than a convex Fig. Let the cm than four times the focal length. In so doing place the dist. Also make Applying sign convention, u is negative. Then gradually move it Solving the above equation which is quadratic, we have away till you obtain a real, inverted and magnified image of two values of u corresponding to the two positions of the the object which is sharply focussed on the screen.

Note the lens. These are position of the lens. Repeat the operation thrice. The mean of this three readings gives the position L1. Note the position of the lens. Repeat ano u2. D2-x2 1 D' between the object and the screen. Determine the index 4D where D is the distance between the object and the correction 1" see Art. The distance L1 - L2 gives the The power P of the lens is as usual given by the relation, displacement x of the lens which is free from any index error.

This should be done by moving away the image screen. Then the distance between set of data. Determine the mean value of f and from this the lens and the paper gives the approximate focal length. The meLltod is aduantageous because it inuolues the deLermination. Tlrc JocaL length con also be determined as Joltows: Plot a graph uitl1.

The resulling graph will be a straight ftne. Its inde. Table II Discusslons: Oral Questions and thelr Answers. Whotts alens? Delne o the prTnctpal ans. What qre the dtfferent klnds oJ Lens;es? II " 4I cm dloptes 4. Deflne j. Are the 2 tu: What are conjugate fxtt? Whrrt do Aou mean bg pou'er oJ a lens? Is rt adtrisable to malce D uerg large? IJ'not uthg? Drrcs the Jx. See discussions. Yes, as can be seen from the relation Whg the lndex correctlon Jor x ts not rlecessany?

As p Whg one tmage ts magntJTed uthtle the other is dtmlntshed? Dlect olsLance Hence as the object distance gets bigger and bigger, the a. What ls the condltlon Jor gettlng a real tmage oJ a real object? The distance between the obJect and of D. Under what condttlon uttll a real magnlfied or a dtmtntshed of the lens. The lens should be placed mld-way between the tmage be Jormed?

When the obJect ls plaeed at a distance between the focus and o How can gou test uthether a gtren lens is conoex or concaue? Hold the lens very close to a printed paper and move lt along But tf the object ls placed between 2f and lnflnity the tmage the paper.

BA emploulng your data can goufrnd f graphlcallg? Whol are the practlcaluses oJ olens? A concave lens cannot produce a real image of a instruments such as cameras, magnlfying glasses, spectacles, real object; but if a virtual object is placed within its focus, it e[c.

This principle I I. At first a real image of a real object is produced with the D must be greater than 4f. Then a concave lens is interposed between the convex lens and its real image in such a way Why should lhe seporailon betuven the obiect and screen be that the real image falls within the focus of the concave lens.

This method has the advantage that the focal length of lens. Mount the object, the convex lens and the image screen in the manner described in procedure ii of expt. The object, which is a cross-wire illuminated from behind, should be placed at one end of the optical bench. Place the image screen at a distance of 4f from the object where f is the focal length of the convex lens. On the other hand Fig.

It is concave lens and is therefore suitable for any pair of concave important Jor this experiment that an image is obtained Jor and convex lenses.

However, for greater accuracy of onlg one position oJ the conuex lens. This happens wlrcn tlrc measurement, it is desirable that the focal length of the distance betueen the object and the screen is 4J. Now if the concave obtained on the screen Jor onlg one posttion oJ the lens. The lens L be so placed that the distance LP is less than its focal point P, which is the position of the screen will be the length, then the image at P will act as a virtual object for the virtual object for the concave lens.

According to sign convention both are independent readings and use the mean in your calculation. The object and the conuex lens should be leJt undisturbed Hence f, the focal length may be determined from the ttvoughout the rest oJ the experiment. Adjust the position of the concave lens until a The power P of the concave lens may be determined as usual from the relation sharp image is formed on the screen at its new position I.

Use the mean of these three positions in your is negative Art. Optical bench, convex lens, concave lens, v Shift the position of the screen away from the screen, index rod, etc. As before, the position of the concave lens should be adjusted thrice and Table III the mean of the three readings should be used.

Then find out the mean f cm which should be used in equation 2 to determine P, the I power of the lens. B Toble Jor u and D. Table No. Whg da Aouuse an ouxlltary arusetc. What hoppens lf the nuex tens Sbrms the real lmage bqond lens natlon the Jocal Lengthof the corrcan: Can the experlment be puJormed. Outslde the focal length of the convex lens so that a real lmage may be formed.

If a convex lens is placed on a few drops of Apparatus: A convex lens, plane mirror, pin with its tip liquid on a plane mirror, then on squeezing the liquid into painted red, spherometer, slide callipers, stand and some the space between the mirror and the lens a plano-concave experimental liquid.

The curved surface of this liquid lens Description of the apparatus: Spherometer see Art 2. The experimental procedure may be divided lens with which it is in contact. Thus we have a combination into three parts - of two lenses - one of glass and the other of liquid, which a determination of the focal length f1 of the convex lens behaves as a convergent lens.

The focal length of a Correcting for the sign of f2 which is negative, convex lens may be weger. But an o. Parallel rays will be incident norm- Fi9. Practical Physics for Degree Students i For the measurement of t. With the help o[ a reflecting face uprvards FiB. Place the lens L over the spherometer, nleasure the radius of curvature r of the plane mirror M and clamp a pin, whose tip should be surface of the lens which was in contact with the liquid in painted red, horizontally on a vertical stand in such a way the manner described below: Now find i Determine the value of the smallest division of the the position of the pin by moving it up or down so that there vertical scale of the spherometer.

Rotate the screw by its is no parallax see Art 5. Measure the distance pL between advances or receeds with respect to the vertical scale. This the tip of the pin and the centre of the lens. In order to distance is the pttch of the spherometer. Divide the pitch measure PL first measure the distance h1 between the pin by the number of divisions in the circular scale. This gives tip and the upper surface of the lens near its middle by a metre scale.

Then remove the lens and measure its the least couttt of the instrument. When ii Repeat the operation i for three or four different this is the case, a slight movement of the screw in the same settings and take the mean value of PL. Take also the reading of the circular head carefully introduce a few drops of the liquid, whose against the linear scale.

Tabulate tiie results. Take three such refractive index is to be determined, into the air film readings at different places of the glass plaie and iake the between the plane mean value. Turn the screw slowly till it just between them by capill- touches the surface of the lens. Note the readings of both the ary action and a plano- linear and circular scales.

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Repeat the operation at least three times at different places of the surface and take the mean of concave lens of the these readings. Let the difference of this reading and the liquid will be formed reading on the base plate be h.

The combin- v Finally place the spherometer upon a piece of paper ation of the liquid lens and slightly press it sq that the. Measure the distance between these marks behaves as a convergent individually with a divider referred to a vernier scale. Take the mean of the three individual readings. Let this reading lens. Repeat the opera- bea tions i and ii descri- Then the radius of curvature of the surface of the lens is bed in a and obtain given by the mean value of F. Pitch of ilre which is o[ no use, since it is the coincidence with the real micrometer screw, P The pin has to be moved further away from the lens till the in-Iage seen is inverted.

Least count L. Lens I Theory: Now let a convex obs. Without any I Iht Itquid ho F o t adjustrnent of the telescope, if 2 ot t, an object at a certain distance u 3 s from the convex lens be focussed so that its image is still formed on the cross-u,ires, then Qslsrrlati6n: The formation of interference fringes by i extended source to be Fresnel bi-prism, ii Lloyd's single mirror, iii Fresnel's incident at the point double mirror, iv Rayleigh's interferometer, etc.

B on the upper surf- this category- ace of the film Fig. In this method, the wavefront One portion of is also divided into two parts by a combination of both the ray is reflected reflection and refraction. Since the resulting wavefronts are from point B on the derived from the same source, they satisfy the condition of 6llass air boundary and coherence. The other part Michelson interferometer" iv Fabry-Perot interferometer, refracts into the air etc. At point F-ig E BDEF are derived from the same source and are coherent.

They will produce constructive or destructive interference Theory: Newton's rings is a noteworttry illustration of depending on their path difference. Let e be the thickness of the interference of light waves reflected from the opposite the film at the point E. When a plano- the angle which the tangent to the convex surface at the corrvex or bi-conves lenx L of large radius o[ curvature is point E makes with the horizontal, r is the angle of placed on a glass plate P, a refraction at the point B and p is the refractive index of the thin air lilm of progressively film with respect to air.

When it is backed by a denser medium glass. Thus there will be an illurninated normally with monochromatic light, an Fig. Then the and bright circular rings, concentric with the point of total optical path difference between the two rays is contact is obsenred Fig.

FfiO The rays will interfere! As a consequence, which is clearly visible and its diameter measured. Let it be the angle 0 becomes negligibty small as compared to r. Furthermore, the experimental arrangement is so designed the nth order ring. Then we have Fig. Accordingly eqns. However, in actual practice, another ring, p rings from Let R be the radius of curvature of the convex surface this ring onwards is selected. From the ring is also measured. S condition of the experiment makes e extremely small.

So to a sufficient degree of a-!: In Newton's rmgs experiment eqn. The aduantoge oJ eqn. The lens C, can be fitted in eqns, 3 and 4 lies ur tlrc Jact that eqns. This giues rise, in a reflected. In actual See Art. Focus the eye-piece on the cross-wires- Deterrnine central point. The order, x, oJ the central ring is thereJore the vernier constant of the micrometer screw of the indeterminate, Le. The centrat spot maA euen be wlite.

As a plate P by means of cotton moistened wittr benzene or consequence, tlrc order oJ eoery otler bright or dark ring alcohol. Place the glass plate P as shown in the figure. Make aduances bg thii indeterminate nubmer x. For ang one oJ an ink dot-mark on the glass plate and focus the microscope them, the square oJ the diameter is not giuen bg eqn' 3 or on this dot. Now place the lens L on it in such a way that the 4. But this ind. Two convex lenses one of whose radius of curvature is to be determined' glass plate, sodium lamp, travelling microscope,etc.

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Descrlption of the aPParatus: The experimental arrangement of the apparatus is shown in Fig. Light from an extended monochromatic source S sodium lamp ,placed at the principal focus of the convex lens C, falls on the lens and are rendered parallel' This parallel beam of light then falls on the glass plate G, inclined at an anlge of 45', and are reflected downwards normally on to the lens L, the radius of cuwature of whose lower surface is R.

The lens L see discussion v is placed on the glass plate P which is optically worked i-e. If you now look into the microscope, you microscope backwards in the opposite direction over the will probably see a system of altemate dark and bright rings. Adjust the glass plate G by rotating it about a horizontal axis vii Draw a graph with the square of the diameter as until a large number of evenly illuminated bright and dark ordinate and number of the ring as abscissa.

The graph rings appear on both sides of the central dark spot. Adjust should be a straight line Fig. This will happen when the flame will be at the separate by say about lO rings i. Now focal plane of the lens C. Move out the as in previous expts.

The cross-wire should pass through the middle of the ring and should be tangential to it. Note the reading of the microscope. Move the microscope rtrq Reodingr of the microscopr Diometer D2 back agaln. Soon it will cross the central dark spot and C,G Ex s! As before set the E. Considering a particular ring.

In this way, the diameters of the various rings are determined see discussion v Tabulate the readings as shown below. Hence while measuring the o diameter of the inner rings some error may be introduced. From this the mean L o diameter can be found.

The measurement of diameters of ro? Otherwise the diameters of the rings will be too srnall and it will be difficult to measure thern. This A. Essential discussions for diffraction experiments. We have seen in the theory of the previous by refering: R -t of width a and is allo- or l. According to geometrical can be determined from the above equation. Same as expt.

The rest of the screen wirl remain absorutely Procedure: However, on squares of the diameters of any two rings D2. As the width of the slit is made smafler and smaller, lens which was in contact with the glass plate in the manner this encroachment of right into the geometrical shadow described in expt.

This encroachment or bending oJ Results: The phenomenon of diffraction is a part Same as in expt. The luminous border that Graph of ring number us.

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Same as in expt. Fresnel class: The source of light or the screen or to focus at another particular point on the screen and are both are at finite distances from the diffracting aperture or regarded to be diffracted at that particular angle. Thus it slit. Its explanation as well as practical demonstration is follows, exactly along the same argument, ihat diffracted rays relatively difficult.

If there are more 2. Fraunhofer class: Both the source and the screen are than one slits, diffraction takes place at individual slits and at infinite distances from the aperture. This is very the diffracted beam from differenl slits interfere to give an conveniently achieved by placing the source on the focal interference pattern. Thus the intensity at any point will plane of a convex lens and placing the screen on the focal depend upon the intensity due to diffraction at the single slit plane of another convex lens.

The first lens makes the light and interference due to two or more slits used, i. The principal maxima in case of observe the Fraunhofer diffraction pattem in the laboratory. If the diffraction patterns An ordinary laboratory spectrometer is all that one needs for due to single, double, The most light parallel and the telescope receives parallel beams of striking modification consists in the gradual narrowinS of light on its focal plane. The diffracting aperture is placed on the interference maxima as the number of slits is gradually Lhe prism table.

With two slits these maxima are diffuse, the Diffraction and interference: With Let a beam of parallel monochromatic light be incident more slits, the sharpness of these principal maxima normally on a slit on an opaque plate. A slit is a rectangular increases rapidly, essentially becoming narrow lines with 2O aperture of length large compared to its breadth. The beam, slits. Apart from this, by far the most important change transmitted through the slit, spreads out perpendicularly to which is noticed is the appearance of weak secondarg the length of the slit.

When this beam is brought to focus on maxima between the principal maxima. The number of these a screen by a lens, a diffraction pattern of the Fraunhofer secondary maxima increases with the increase in the class is obtained. The pattern consisis of a central band, number of slits, but the intensity of these secondary maxima much wider than the slit Mdth, situated directly opposite to decreases with the increase in the number of slits.

With the slit and bordered by dark and bright bands of decreasing three slits, the number of secondary maxima is one; its intensity. With The origin of the pattern can be understood on the basis four slits this number becomes two and with five slits there of Huygens' interference of secondary wavelets. According to are three weak secondary maxima.

With more number of Huygens' principle, these wavelets can be thought of as sent slits, the intensity of the secondary maxima becomes out by every point of the wavefront at the instant it occupies negligibly small so that these are not visible in the diffraction the plane of the slit.

Each secondary rvavelet can be regarded pattern.

A large number of closely spaced parallel slits separated The parts of each wavelet travelling normally to the slit, are by equal opaque spacings form a di-lfraction grating. If there broughL to focus by the lens at a point on the screen directly are N slits the effect at any point may be considered to be opposite to the centre of the slit.

The parts of the wavefront due to N vibrations. This is true for any of the two corresponding be diffracted through an angle 0. From the figure it is clear that light points on the consecutive slits. L The expresssion for intensity contains both diffraction and interference effects" Fig. Hi-tech gadgets, modern machinery, gigantic skyscrapers, speedy trains, superior infrastructure are some of the marvels of physics. Practical physics has laid the groundwork in the fields of engineering, technology and medical diagnostics.

In practical physics the student obtain laboratory skills, design experiments and apply instrumentation such as electronic circuits to observe and measure natural phenomena. To master the science of physics practical one needs to have a complete and thorough knowledge of all the experiments. This handbook written according to the needs and requirement of the board exam helps the student to score high. It includes different sets of experiments with proper steps and neat and labeled diagrams.

These experiments help the student to understand the practical applications of many principles and laws involved in Std. The handbook also includes all the useful tables given at the end. And lastly, we would like to thank all those who have helped us in preparing this book. There is always room for improvement and hence we welcome all suggestions and regret any errors that may have occurred in the making of this book. A book affects eternity; one can never tell where its influence stops.

Best of luck to all the aspirants! To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T2 --m graph using method of oscillations.

To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.What ls the phgslcal stgnl,ficance of the moment lnertta? Now find i Determine the value of the smallest division of the the position of the pin by moving it up or down so that there vertical scale of the spherometer.

Sere theoll' ExPt. This method has the advantage that the focal length of lens. The length of From FE 2. Box 80 5.

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