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Isječak iz knjige Totem i tabu: Ono što najrječitije govori o osobi i djelu dr. Sigmunda Freuda, nesmanjena je aktualnost i interes koji pobuđuje u svom vremenu i. The two principal themes, totem and taboo, which give the name to this .. The subclass c forms an exogamous unit with e, and the subclass d. to the challenges of this field because it has lost touch with Freud's Totem and Taboo. Haas, tranarkiptinan.gq (a) Ist Totem und Tabu ein exotischer Tagtraum oder.
It is necessary for the purposes of this chapter to go more deeply into the nature of totemism. For reasons that will be evident later I here give preference to an outline by S.
Media in category "Totem und Tabu"
Reinach, who in the year sketched the following Code du totmism in twelve articles, like a catechism of the totemic religion: 2 1.
Certain animals must not be killed or eaten, but men bring up individual animals of these species and take care of them. An animal that dies accidentally is mourned and buried with the same honors as a member of the tribe.
The prohibition as to eating sometimes refers only to a certain part of the animal. If pressure of necessity compels the killing of an animal usually spared, it is done with excuses to the animal and the attempt is made to mitigate the violation of the taboo, namely the killing, through various tricks and evasions.
If the animal is sacrificed by ritual, it is solemnly mourned. At specified solemn occasions, like religious ceremonies, the skins of certain animals are donned. Where totemism still exists, these are totem animals. Tribes and individuals assume the names of totem animals.
Totem und tabu. Part II : Das tabu und die ambivalenz der gefühlsregungen : holograph
Many tribes use pictures of animals as coats of arms and decorate their weapons with them; the men paint animal pictures on their bodies or have them tattooed. If the totem is one of the feared and dangerous animals it is assumed that the animal will spare the members of the tribe named after it.
The totem animal protects and warns the members of the tribe. The totem animal foretells the future to those faithful to it and serves as their leader. The members of a totem tribe often believe that they are connected with the totem animal by the bond of common origin. The value of this catechism of the totem religion can be more appreciated if one bears in mind that Reinach has here also incorporated all the signs and clews which lead to the conclusion that the totemic system had once existed.
The peculiar attitude of this author to the problem is shown by the fact that to some extent he neglects the essential traits of totemism, and we shall see that of the two main tenets of the totemistic catechism he has forced one into the background and completely lost sight of the other. In order to get a more correct picture of the characteristics of totemism we turn to an author who has devoted four volumes to the theme, combining the most complete collection of the observations in question with the most thorough discussion of the problems they raise.
We shall remain indebted to J. Frazer, the author of Totemism and Exogamy, 3 for the pleasure and information he affords, even though psychoanalytic investigation may lead us to results which differ widely from his.
The connection between a person and his totem is mutually beneficent; the totem protects the man and the man shows his respect for the totem in various ways, by not killing it if it be an animal, and not cutting or gathering it if it be a plant.
As distinguished from a fetich, a totem is never an isolated individual but always a class of objects, generally a species of animals or of plants, more rarely a class of inanimate natural objects, very rarely a class of artificial objects.
At least three kinds of totem can be distinguished: 1. The tribal totem which a whole tribe shares and which is hereditary from generation to generation, 2. The sex totem which belongs to all the masculine or feminine members of a tribe to the exclusion of the opposite sex, and 3.
The individual totem which belongs to the individual and does not descend to his successors. The relationship of father is also not just his father, but every man in the clan that, hypothetically, could have been his father.
He relates this to the idea of young children calling all of their parents' friends as aunts and uncles. There are also further marriage classes, sometimes as many as eight, that group the totems together, and therefore limit a man's choice of partners.
He also talks about the widespread practices amongst the cultures of the Pacific Islands and Africa of avoidance. Many cultures do not allow brothers and sisters to interact in any way, generally after puberty. Men are not allowed to be alone with their mothers-in-law or say each other's names. He explains this by saying that after a certain age parents often live through their children to endure their marriage and that mothers-in-law may become overly attached to their son-in-law.
Similar restrictions exist between a father and daughter, but they only exist from puberty until engagement. Chapter 2[ edit ] In "Taboo and emotional ambivalence," Freud considers the relationship of taboos to totemism. Freud uses his concepts projection and ambivalence he developed during his work with neurotic patients in Vienna to discuss the relationship between taboo and totemism.
Like neurotics , 'primitive' people feel ambivalent about most people in their lives, but will not admit this consciously to themselves. They will not admit that as much as they love their mother, there are things about her they hate.
The suppressed part of this ambivalence the hate parts are projected onto others.
Totem und Tabu
In the case of natives, the hateful parts are projected onto the totem, as in: 'I did not want my mother to die; the totem wanted her to die. In ceremonies surrounding kings, which are often quite violent, — such as the king starving himself in the woods for a few weeks — he considers two levels that are functioning to be the "ostensible" i. The Origins of Religion.
Penguin Books. The Man and the Cause.
Totem and Taboo. WW Norton. James; Kramer, Robert Inside Psychoanalysis. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Images of Man: A History of Anthropological Thought. New York: Alfred A. A Life for Our Time. The Elementary Structures of Kinship.
The Rise of Anthropological Theory: A History of Theories of Culture. Thomas Y.
Totem und Tabu by Sigmund Freud
Crowell Company. Man's Rise to Civilization:Totem e Tabu: If a totem animal had to be killed it was done with a prescribed ritual of excuses and ceremonies of expiation.
Man's Rise to Civilization: It is due to this belief that they do not hunt the totem animal or kill or eat it, and that they deny themselves every other use of the totem if it is not an animal. The connection between a person and his totem is mutually beneficent; the totem protects the man and the man shows his respect for the totem in various ways, by not killing it if it be an animal, and not cutting or gathering it if it be a plant.
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