जूठन-1 आज़ादी के पाँच दशक पूरे होने और आधुनिकता के तमाम आयातित अथवा मौलिक रूपों को भीतर तक आत्मसात कर चुकने के. Joothan Omprakash Valmiki Summary In Hindi [PDF] JOOTHAN books are NOT available for reading online or for free download in PDF or. Posté le: Ven 5 Jan - () Sujet du message: Joothan in hindi pdf Best Book Award Omprakash Valmiki Omprakash Valmiki's Joothan is among.
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"Omprakash Valmiki's Joothan, an autobiographical account of his birth and to the Hindi Edition Introduction, by Arun Prabha Mukherjee Joothan Glossary. Bachelor of Science (tranarkiptinan.gq) (General) · Foundation Courses · BHDF Foundation Course in Hindi (COMPULSORY) · Block-3 साहित्य का आस्वादन. The title of the book, „Joothan‟ encapsulates the pain, humiliation and notion behind writing the autobiography in the preface to the Hindi edition of the book.
Thus what detractors have enumerated as faults, Dalit writers have embraced as the distinct aspects of Dalit aesthetics.
There are many points of conjuncture between Marxist and Dalit perspectives on the world, society, and literature. Dalit Literature and Autobiography Autobiography has been a favorite genre of Dalit writers.
This is not surprising, in light of the emphasis that they place on authenticity of experience. Here again Dalit writers have faced criticism xxxvi Introduction from mainstream critics who say that autobiography is not a literary genre. Valmiki says that even some Dalit writers have internalized this negative view of autobiography.
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Ambedkar and Periyar spoke and wrote on the day-to-day experiences of the Dalitbahujan castes. One main point of Dalit literary analysis is that Dalit literature is based on real life and the lived experience of Dalit writers. While mainstream critics have seen this as evidence of a lack of imagination in Dalit writing, suggesting that Dalit literature is nothing but reportage, Dalit writers point to the authenticity of experience as the most important characteristic of Dalit writing.
Periyar means great soul, or mahatma, the honorific given to E. Ramasamy Naicker — , the great leader of the non-Brahmins of Tamil Nadu. Naicker founded the Dravida Kazhagam, or Dravidian Federation, a party of political, social, and cultural reform that rallied south Indians against the Brahmin hegemony and called on them to take pride in their own distinct culture. He founded the SelfRespect movement for non-Brahmins. When I questioned him about it during an interview, Valmiki insisted that all his stories are based on real incidents.
Dalit analyses of ancient Indian sacerdotal texts have been irreverent, turning the heroes into villains and vice versa. Ilaiah retells the mythological stories about gods and goddesses like Ram and Sita, Shiva and Parvati, Vishnu and Lakshmi, and others from a Dalit point of view, rehabilitating the traditionally demonized characters in them. Valmiki says that Dalit literature has recuperated such stigmatized characters as Eklavya, Karna, and Shambuk from ancient epics and established them as heroes This is the only place in the text where he draws on traditional Hindu mythology.
Like the goddess, who is the embodiment of shakti or power, his mother will not be submissive against such an insult but will avenge herself. The goddess Durga is the protective mother who will also use her power to rid the world of evil.
Dalit writers like Valmiki are thus producing literary analysis and literary theory simultaneously with their literary creations.
The high-caste literary establishment can no longer continue to present its choices as universal and timeless.
Moreover, by producing their own discourse and publishing it in small Dalit-run journals, Dalit writers have created a space for themselves. He therefore has broken new ground, mapped a new territory. Besides a few stray poems and short stories by canonical Hindi writers, which portray Dalit characters as tragic figures and objects of pathos, Dalit representations are conspicuously absent from contemporary Hindi literature.
A literary critic, reared in an educational system that taught a canon of literature focused solely on the experience of the privileged sections of society, whether of India or of the West, must Introduction xxxix tread cautiously in this new territory, using the benchmarks provided by Dalit literary theory and continuously on guard against those kinds of formalist analyses that privilege form over content. The Hindi word joothan literally means food left on a plate, usually destined for the garbage pail in a middle-class urban home.
However, such food would be characterized joothan only if someone else were to eat it. The word carries the connotations of ritual purity and pollution, because jootha means polluted.
I feel that words such as leftovers or leavings are not adequate substitutes for joothan. Leftovers has no negative connotations and can simply mean food remaining in the pot that can be eaten at the next meal; leavings, although widely used by Ambedkar and Gandhi, is no longer in the active vocabulary of Indian English. Scraps and slops are somewhat closer to joothan, but they are associated more with pigs than with humans. Valmiki gives a detailed description of collecting, preserving, and eating joothan.
His memories of being assigned to guard the drying joothan from crows and chickens, and of his relishing the dried and reprocessed joothan, burn him with renewed pain and humiliation many years later. The term actually carries a lot of historical baggage. Both Ambedkar and Gandhi advised untouchables to stop accepting joothan. Ambedkar, an indefatigable documenter of atrocities against Dalits, shows how the highcaste villagers could not tolerate the decision of Dalits to no longer accept joothan and threatened Dalits with violence if they refused it.
K J Thomas
Valmiki has thus recovered a word from the painful past of Dalit history, and it resonates with multiple ironies. Her act of defiance is an example of rebellion to the child Valmiki. He has dedicated the book to her and his father and portrays both as heroic figures who desired something better for their child and fought for his safety and growth with tremendous courage. An honorific title, it meant an officer who kept and prepared records.
The child Valmiki rises on their shoulders to become the first high school graduate from his neighborhood. He pays his debt by giving voice to the indignities suffered by his parents and other Dalits. He constructs Joothan in the form of wave upon wave of memories that erupt in his mind when triggered by a stimulus in the present.
These are memories of trauma that Valmiki had suppressed. He uses the metaphors of erupting lava, explosions, conflagrations, and flooding to denote their uncontrollable character. The text follows the logic of the recall of these memories. Instead of following a linear pattern, Valmiki moves from memory to memory, showing how his present is deeply scarred by his past despite the great distance that he has traveled to get away from it.
The text abounds in metaphors of assault, wound, dismemberment, scarring, and so on, conveying the brutality and violence of the social order that the narrator inhabits. Valmiki presents the traumatic moments of encounter with his persecutors as dramatized scenes, as cinematic moments. His narration of the event captures the intensity of the memory and Introduction xli suggests that he has not yet healed from these traumas of the past. We see a full-dress reenactment of the event from the perspective of the child or the adolescent Valmiki.
Many Dalit texts share this strategy of staging encounters between the Dalit narrator and people of upper castes. Often these encounters are between a Dalit child at his or her most vulnerable and an upper-caste adult in a position of authority. The Dalit narrator lives these traumatic experiences again but this time in order to go past them by understanding them in an ethical framework and passing judgment on them, something that the child could not do.
The theoretical glossing of the experience, then, is a sort of healing, a symbol of having overcome it by naming it and sharing it with a caring community. By documenting these experiences of the Dalit child, first by theatricalizing them so that we see them for ourselves and then by commenting on them in the ethical language of guilt and responsibility from the perspective of the victim, Valmiki and other Dalit writers break through the wall of silence and denial that had hidden the suffering of the Dalits.
He relives the agony of having to sit away from his classmates, on the floor, of being denied the right to drink from the common pitcher, lest he make it jootha, and, worst of all, being denied access to the lab, which ensured his failure in an examination. The text, as testimony to a crime suffered, acquires the character of a victim impact statement. Indeed, after losing his thumb, Eklavya could no longer perform archery.
When people of high caste tell this popular story, they present a casteless Eklavya as the exemplar of an obedient disciple rather than the Brahmin Dronacharya as a perfidious and biased teacher. When in a literature class a teacher waxes eloquent about this same Dronacharya, Valmiki challenges the teacher, only to be ruthlessly caned.
The modern Dalit Eklavya, however, can no longer be tricked into self-mutilation. While Valmiki indicts the education system as dealing in death for Dalits, Valmiki pays tribute to the Dalit organic intellectuals who help nurture the growth of a Dalit consciousness in him. Hemlal has shed his stigmatized identity as a Chamar by changing his name from Jatia, which identifies him as an untouchable, to Jatav, which is not readity identifiable.
See page This moment, narrativized at length in Joothan, gives us a key to how marginalized groups walk onto the stage of history. Valmiki underscores the way that Ambedkar has been excised from the hagiography of nationalist discourse. Valmiki first encounters Ambedkar through the writing of a fellow Dalit, passed on to him by another Dalit, in a library run by Dalits. Valmiki mocks and rewrites the village pastoral that was long a staple of Indian literature in many languages, as well as a staple of the nationalist discourse of grassroots democracy.
Valmiki portrays a village life where the members of his caste, Chuhras, lived outside the village, were forced to perform unpaid labor, and were denied basic requirements like access to public land and water, let alone education or camaraderie.
Valmiki describes in painstaking detail the process of removing and skinning dead animals, curing the hide, and taking it to the hide market, which is permeated with the stench of raw hides and fresh bones. We read about the cleaning of stinking straw beds in the cattle sheds of higher-caste villagers. He describes the tasks involved in reaping and harvesting in terms of intense physical labor under a scorching sun and the needle pricks of the sheaves of grain.
Valmiki shows that he performed most of these tasks under duress and was often paid nothing. Such a portrayal of village life is very unlike the lyric mode of Hindi nature poetry where the sickle-wielding, singing farmworker is just an accessory of the picturesque landscape. By so doing, he provides readers with not only his experience as a victim but an inkling of how some people flatly deny such experiences ever occurred.
His voice acquires a bitterly ironic tone when he addresses those who deny these experiences. In fact, one distinctive aspect of Joothan, which marks it as a Dalit text, is its interrogative discourse.
Valmiki, like many other Dalit writers, demands the status of truth for his writing, taking issue with those who find Dalit literature lacking in imagination. Dalit autobiography claims the status of truth, of testimony.
Naming people and places by their real names is one strategy through which Valmiki establishes the status of Joothan as testimony. The concrete materiality of his village and the cities that he later inhabits, and the rendering of historical Dalit protests that he participated in or wrote about in the newspapers at a personal cost, give Joothan the status of documented Dalit history.
The timbre of his voice is exhortatory. It demands answers and points out contradictions. While the text has many moments of deep sadness and pathos, its predominant mood is irony. The narrative comments are inevitably in an ironic voice, pouring sarcasm on the cherished cultural ideals and myths of high-caste friends. He relentlessly exposes the double standards of friends who are greatly interested in literature and theater yet practice untouchability in subtle ways, such as having a different set of teacups for their untouchable visitors.
Indeed, Joothan demands a radical shift from the upper-caste and upper-class reader by insisting that such readers not forget their caste or class privilege. While Valmiki directs his irony, satire, harangue, and anger at non-Dalit readers, he sees Dalit readers as fellow sufferers. While the indictment of an unjust social system and its benefactors is one thrust of the text, its other important preoccupation is a substantive examination of Dalit lives.
This self-critique has earned him brickbats from many Dalits who find the frank portrayal of Dalit society to be humiliating. For them, it is tantamount to washing dirty linen in public.
Valmiki accuses these Dalits of succumbing to brahminism. His frank critique of his own family members who hide their caste and therefore deny their relationship to Valmiki in public must have been painful to the people involved, particularly because he named them.
Joothan, then, is a multivalent, polyvocal text, healing the fractured self through narrating, contributing to the archive of Dalit history, opening a dialogue with the silencing oppressors, and providing solace as well as frank criticism to his own people. On the other hand, the harsh realities that he portrays so powerfully underscore the failure to fully meet the promises made in the Constitution of independent India.
Joothan stridently asks for the promissory note, joining a chorus of Dalit voices that are demanding their rightful place under the sun. A manifesto for revolutionary transformation of society and human consciousness, Joothan confronts its readers with difficult questions about their own humanity and invites them to join the universal project of human liberation.
No translation is a replica of the original text, and every translation necessarily entails a loss. My translation of Joothan is no Introduction xlvii exception. At times the English version may sound awkward, but I have chosen awkwardness over falsification or softening. For example, the Hindi term jatak, as used by the village upper castes, does not translate as child or children because these English words have positive connotations.
I have therefore used progeny to convey the coldness and contempt in caste-inflected interactions. The speech and conversations of his family and villagers are in local dialect but with distinct variations, the linguistic equivalent of the social distance between them. All cross-cultural communication involves a loss in meaning. Valmiki constantly worries whether savarna Hindus who have not experienced the hardships of untouchability will understand him. Limbale proposes that what the readers and critics need more than anything else when reading Dalit writing is empathy.
If this translated version of Joothan manages to engage readers by appealing to their consciousness and arousing their empathy, it will have done its job.
Thus Spoke Ambedkar: Selected Speeches. Edited by Bhagwan Das. Jullundur, India: Bheem Patrika Publications. In Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches.
Compiled by Vasant Moon. Bombay: Education Department, Government of Maharashtra. Edited by Vasant Moon. Dangle, Arjun. Translated by Avinash S. Pandit and Daya Agarwal. Bombay: Orient Longman. Das, Bhagwan. Bangalore, India: Ambedkar Sahitya Prakashan. Edited by Bhagwan Das and James Massey. Ilaiah, Kancha. Calcutta: Samya. Kosambi, Damodar Dharmanand. An Introduction to the Study of Indian History.
Bombay: Popular Prakashan. Lal, A. Limbale, Sharankumar. In press. Translated by Alok Mukherjee. Hyderabad, India: Orient Longman. Mukherjee, Prabhati.
Omvedt, Gail. Dalits and the Democratic Revolution: Dr. Ambedkar and the Dalit Movement in Colonial India. Delhi: Sage. Delhi: Orient Longman. Valmiki, Omprakash. Dalit Sahitya ka Saundaryashastra. Delhi: Radhakrishna. Wankhade, M. Translated by Maxine Berntsen. Families of Muslim weavers lived on the other side of it. The pond was called Dabbowali, and it is hard to say how it got that name.
Perhaps because its shape was that of a big pit. On one side of the pit were the high walls of the brick homes of the Tagas. At a right angle to these were the clay walls of the two or three homes of the Jhinwars, another untouchable caste. After these were more homes of the Tagas. The homes of the Chuhras were on the edges of the pond. All the women of the village, young girls, older women, even the newly married brides, would sit in the open space behind these homes at the edges of the pond to take a shit.
Not just under the cover of darkness but even in daylight. The purdah-observing Tyagi women, their faces covered with their saris, shawls around their shoulders, found relief in this open-air latrine. At this same spot they would have a conference at a round table to discuss all the quarrels of the village.
The muck was strewn everywhere. The stench was so overpowering that one would choke within a minute. The pigs wandering in narrow lanes, naked children, dogs, daily fights—this was the environment of my childhood. If the people who call the caste system an ideal 1. Taga is the abbreviation of the surname Tyagi. Our family lived in this Chuhra basti. Everyone in the family did some work or other.
All the teachers belonged to the upper caste and they hated this untouchable boy and used to punish him. Both the students and teachers used all sorts of dirty tricks to force Valmiki run away from the school.
They thought that he had no right to education and he must do the work of sweeper in the village. He had two classmates of the same caste. They were Ram Singh and Sukkhan. They were very good in their studies.
But they were always insulted by both the teachers and students of the school. When they wore neat and clean clothes, other students teased them and their words were like poisoned arrows pierced their hearts.
If the three boys dressed in old and shabby clothes, others would ask them to get out because they were stinking! They were humiliated whichever way they dressed. When Valmiki reached fourth class Kaliram became the Headmaster. He and his teachers tried their best to humiliate and punish Valmiki and his two companions. Almost every day Valmiki was cruelly beaten up in the class. One day the Headmaster asked Valmiki to climb the teak tree and break some twigs and make a broom.
When the broom was made, the headmaster asked Valmiki to sweep the whole school. He also added that sweeping was his family occupation. When other students had been learning in class rooms, Valmiki alone swept all the class rooms and play grounds.
His face and mouth were covered with dust. It's a nice autobiography of Mr. Valmiki who's narration explains the horrible treatment of dalits in rural north India. A must read for people to understand psyche of dalits and the feelings of downtrodden.
This book is very helpful to understanding the arakshan and thanks to writer.
One person found this helpful. Om prakash ji has written his heart out. We need more writers like him to let society know what means to be a dalit. His story should be taught in school and college so that we can break the disease of caste system.
Caste is not just a name, it means entitlements.
This book truly captures it. We cannot forget your contribution to society. It tells struggles made by the author. Pathetic condition of Dalits in which live. Must read autobiography.
Joothan : a dalit's life
Loved it. Must download and read. You can blindly trust on this book. It didn't just talk about personal experience with untouchability but also reconnected me with hindi literature. See all 22 reviews.
Back to top. Get to Know Us.They were humiliated whichever way they dressed. He is the one who had suffered a lot socially, economically and culturally, and wrestled against all odds in order to cherish the dreams of his life. The text abounds in metaphors of assault, wound, dismemberment, scarring, and so on, conveying the brutality and violence of the social order that the narrator inhabits.
Dalit autobiographies are meant to be understood as a representative story, where the 'ordinary' or 'representative' Dalit individual uses his narrative to raise his voice for those who are silenced by caste oppression. The story has been taken from epic Mahabharata written by Ved Vyasa.
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It is related to the word jootha which means polluted. To touch, talk with or even to look at a chandala made one undergo penance.
The word carries the connotations of ritual purity and pollution, because jootha means polluted.