adminComment(0) The Motivation Teaching to Learn, Learning to Teach Gary Kasparov - Kasparov Teaches Chess. series of 24 lessons introducing chess fans, in simple language, to openings, the most Gary Kasparov delves into the tactics and strategy in the. Openings. Gary Kasparov Kasparov Teaches Chess - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or read online for free. Gary Kasparov, the seven time world chess champion.

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pdf. Kasparov Teaches Chess by Garry Kasparov. Pages Gary Kasparov delves into the tactics and strategy in the openings, middle and end game. Kasparov Teaches Chess (The Macmillan Chess Library) [Gary Kasparov] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A series of 24 chess lessons, . Kasparov vs Portisch, (E12) Queen's Indian, 35 moves, Lesson 3: Material Imbalance Tal vs Panno, (C92) Ruy Lopez, Closed, 57 moves,

A final finesse - the bishop The game finished: He cannot defend against War and It gradually becomes to demand a great degree of clear that White has no game insight into the position from plan at all and is merely our readers.

But I think this concerned with 'development' critical comment by an ex- One could perhaps have got world champion may be taken away with such play at the as a chess axiom valid for turn of the century, but anyone who plays chess. Choice of Opening Having studied the previous ment on As you can see, lessons, you have set up your White's aims are straight pieces and are thinking over forward and clear-cut, and it is the first move.

Don't be in a natural that all openings hurry to read an opening starting with 1 e4 are referred manual - it will only lead you to as 'open' or 'semi-open'. Let's try to make a So, White has played 1 e First of all, Which is the best reply for remember that there is no such Black?

There are several reaction is undoubtedly the moves corresponding to the symmetrical reply with the principles of development in Black king's pawn. I would suggest starting the game with the advance of one The King's Gambit: Before f4 ef 3 Qf3 d5 4 d4. This becoming a grandmaster I splendid opening has dropped liked starting the game with 1 out of major tournament e4!

This move reminded me of practice mostly due to the chivalrous gallantry and a counter-gambit ideas enabling readiness to engage in open Black to fight successfully for combat.

The White pawn on initiative by playing Choice of Opening 53 possibilities. The attempts by means of sacrifices playing 4 b4 Axb4 5 c3 l c 5 6 d4 or 4 c3 Qf6 5 d4 ed 6 Another attempt to remove the pawn from the centre - 2 d4 ed 3 l x d 4 - has found very few supporters.

As a result of the White queen's walk The Giuoco Piano. The idea is to The Ruy Lopez, 2 a13 Q c6 3 seize the centre and attack the Ab5, is the epitome of open fcl-square.

This is one of the games. Thebestgrandmasters t h e f a m o u s Marshall's regard the ability to play Ruy Counter-attack The 8 c3 d5!? Qb8 10 6d4b57Ab3d58dele6 , d4.

Those who like scrupulous work at the chessboard and who can patiently bide their time would do well to study one of these openings. To play them well and in the centre, have evolved.

In efficiently, one must have a the Nmzo-lndran Defence 1 certain understanding of d4 Qf6 2 c4 e6 3 Qc3 l b 4 positlon and some experience. Analogous to 1 e4, the most fundamental reply to 1 d4 is In the King's Indian Defence 1 d4 Qf6 2 c4 g6 3 8 c 3 Ag7 4 e4 d6 short outline of the basicchess openings. They reflect all that Qxd5 5 e4 might be of importance in Black permits White to build tournament practice, in other up a powerful pawn centre and words, the basic laws of then embarks o n an opening strategy.

We have undermining strategy. The Art of Planning Before embarking on an real conditions for mating the activity, almost every person, opponent's king. The mate is in order to achieve his object, the ultimate and most desired contemplates what operations object of the game, and 'play he will have to perform and for mate from the first move' is figures out the best sequence a wish to satisfy this desire.

Firstly, you develop your I firmlybelieve that chess is, pieces according to a certain to a certain extent, a model of pattern to achieve some life, and therefore planning is superiority in a certain area of an essential feature of this the chessboard.

Then you increase your What is planning in a chess pressure in order to obtain game? It is a well-considered concrete positional o r order of operations aimed at material advantages in the achieving a definite and middlegame.

Some amateur may say play in a free-wheeling fashion '1 w a n t t o checkmate, either; he also plays according therefore I play for a mate to a plan, taking into account from the very start.

So I play alI dangers, threats and according to a plan. In the trying above all to get rid of initial position there are no the weaknesses. Therefore, it is important to be able to analyse the fighting formations of both sides and to understand all the subtleties of the position. The ability to build up a plan and to carry it out consistently on the board is one of the most attractive aspects of chess; sometimes it is more gratifying than, say, a direct attack on the enemy's king.

And if you remember that quite often chess players camouflage their This is one of the oldest intentions by employing variations of the Ruy Lopez. Serious and continuing c2-c3 and d2-d4 small mistakes are inevitable.

Black ordinarily tries to learn from your mistakes than hold the outpost on e5 by to do without any plan playing Qg8-e7-g6 followed whatsoever. It is also possible to To illustrate this, let us build up another defensive consider t h e following formation: Both sides seem to be ready for slow positional man- A.

Bondarevsky oeuvring. Suddenly Black Moscow makes an impulsive anti- positional move. Ad7 Energetic actions in the 12 Was! The loss of centre. White's 6th move is a a tempo is more than good example of timely compensated by the disham- correction of the previously ony of Black's pieces. Another positional concess- i ion. Labouring under the illusion that the advantage of two bishops permits him to open up the centre, Black, still conspicuously underdevelop- ed, makes serious concessions in the centre.

This position king. The quickest way is to clear the field in the centre. WfS of the pawn to c3, and this After However, the weakness of the squares in Black's camp turns out to be a decisive factor. We8 I - In addition to the extra pawn which can be exploited only in the ending, Black's chief advantage lies in the control of a number of squares in the centre: White has his counter- chances: How many similar positions, White's knights have as a result of superficial play, immediate exchange of one have ended in the draw!

But smithereens. The final stage of Smyslov is a great expert on White's plan is to obtain a such endgames. His winning decisive material advantage. The and soon Black resigned.

To prevent this, White's rook must Now that White's pieces concede the d-file to Black's have to defend the e4-pawn, i rook. Black's king comes into play, 24M2 h5 heading for g4. Originally, the route of White resigned Black's king was g7-g6-g5-g4 provided the rooks were What is the best method of preserved.

However, White planning a chess game? Forcing Continuations For most enthusiasts chess is Therefore those who want to a game sparkling succeed in chess should realise with impetuous attacks and that combinative and posit- combinational fireworks. Forming a deep and masters, problems and efficient 'correct' plan studies. And o n l y upon requires as much imagination plunging seriously into the and versatility as calculating intricacies of the game do they an intricate chess combinat- realize that the opportunities ion.

If the idea of a for effective attacks and combination has been found, combinations are not, as a then the calculation of the rule, spontaneous, but they moves is a matter of time and result from positional play t e c h n i q u e. T h e moves based on the observance of the frequently assume a forced laws of chess strategy.

The concrete first official world champion calculation of variations often Wilhelm Steinitz was the first gives away to semi-abstract to formulate the basic laws of speculations and assumptions positional play strategy. He about the likely resultant showed that a plan cannot be positions. The ability to play inspired by t h e player' 'according to the position', or imagination. It should rely on 'positionally', is important in something concrete hidden in complex a n d a b s t r a c t the position on the chessboard situations when the target of at a particular moment.

He the attack is not yet clear and demonstrated t h a t each one has to manoeuvre in order position on the chessboard is to consolidate one's pieces and characterised by various discover a weak point in the factors, favourable or enemy camp.

However, very few know that The ability to evaluate these combinations were properly the situation at any based on profound strategic moment of t h e game principles such as maximum determines, to a great extent, centralisation of the pieces, the strength of the chess superiority in development, player.

Morphy intuitively example. Boleslrrvsky-A,Kotov strategy and, owing to this, he Zurich Forcing Conrinuarions 6 7 A t first glance, the chances If Black could exchange are unclear here - White has knights, the draw would be an extra pawn, but his obvious, even if he let the queenside pawns are weak and White king into the centre and Black's t w o long-range gave up the a6-pawn. But this bishops are likely to give Black is impossible.

It is easy to see sufficient counterplay to that White's bishop is ready to achieve equality. The trouble capture Black's knight if it is that the bishop on d6 is moves. So, the ending with the pinned. To free himself, Black opposite-coloured bishops has to play for simplifications, does not save Black and the hoping to secure a draw in the White king will take the ending with opposite coloured shortest way to the queenside, bishops. Alas, there is a small after which Black's pawns are drawback in this evaluation of sure to fall.

This elementary the position leading, 7 moves example shows that White later, to Black's loss. Ac6 calculation of variations was 26 b4! The player the quality of pawn structure, h a v i n g the p o s i t i o n a l mobility, the availability of advantage is in charge of the open lines, and the material s i t u a t i o n.

S u d d e n l y he relationships of the pieces. In the past years In t h e e n d g a m e t h e profound chess analysts have evaluation of the position is unravelled many mysteries in usually determined by the the theory of positional play. I assure you ions are carried out to increase you won't regret it! Lesson 1 4 Queen Sacrifices So long as a chess game ishing paradoxes of chess, develops steadily in accord- When a struggle is in progress, ance with the laws of strategy, each side can choose from the traditional hierarchical several possible moves.

But value of chess pieces is combinative complications preserved. One can, of course, violating normal material argue about which is stronger values strictly limit the ways in - the rook or the bishop and which the game can develop, two pawns - depending on and what is ore, the opponent the position occupied by these has no choice of moves.

But sometimes chess Let us analyse a game pieces acquire supernatural between Edward Lasker and strength and begin performing George Thomas played in miracles.

AII our traditional I9 1 I. It deveIoped quietly at values are exploded: This happens most fre- Edward Lasker-G. Tbomu quently when a well thought- London out combination is imple- mented on the chess board. It is a well known fact that combinational play appeals to chess enthusiasts.

First of all, by its beauty, unexpectedness and inexor- able logic, for in the course of the combination the opponent usually makes forced moves. We7 king. But the Black king is sure Black avoids Axe5 to perish here. If Beautiful? Unexpect- only he had known what was ed! But why going to happen next! An experienced chess player knows that a combination never starts from scratch.

To make a combinat- ion feasible, one must have certain advantages which are accumulated gradually, move after move. The accumulative process may substantially accelerate the opponent's mistakes. An astonishing sacrifice. What made the queen White gives up his queen for a sacrifice in the game analysed pawn making the Black king above possible? The absence of the Black pawn on f7 created the The queen has too much to preconditions for the mating do protecting the important position: White's knights on f6 squares h2 and e4.

Black's last and g6, Black king on h8 and move makes it impossible for Black's pawn on g7. This is a her to protect these squares typical position.

There are many Brilliant! The pinned queen, positions of this kind and it is cannot defend the king from quite easy to remember them.

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Let us analyse a position from a game between G. Rotlevi and A. Rubinstein played in Combinations like these are unforgettable. How do they arise? What is their essence? We shall devote a few lessons to these questions.

Now we are going to specify the conditions necessary far carrying out The idea for a combination may appear when the situation on the chessboard is characterissd by cettain specific features. They suggest the motif of the combinational explosion. Such specific features incl- ude, for example, weakness of the first White or eighth Black rank which makes it 2 Wc4!! If that happens, the defending side, in order to avoid being checkmated immediately, must accept heavy losses and the subsequent struggle becomes pointless.

A classic example is provided by the game between Edward Adarns and Carlos 3 Wc7!! Torre in These elegant queen offers are beautiful but apparently pointless.

What has White achieved? If he continues in - the same style 4 Wxb7, then Black will continue Wxa4 This sacrifice is decisive. The Black queen can no longer A brilliant knockout! Black stay on the a4-e8 diagonal.

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It is continue our consideration of impossible to play 5. Wxe4 the conditions which are because of 6 Pxe4 and the n e c e s s a r y if a t t a c k i n g White queen is taboo. So the combinations are to be carried queen has to retreat. Tactical Devices I n our last lesson we dealt with the game Carlos Torre vs and how they Emanuel Lasker Moscow occur in practical games.

We Now we art: Firstly we look at the weakness of the second seventh rank. The weakness of the back rank leads to mating threats It seems that Black may be against the White king. The happy with his position but an weakness of the second or unexpected and brilliant seventh rank most often leads sacrifice of White's bishop to the destruction of the king's drastically changes t h e pawn protection thereby situation, making it possible facilitating ultimate victory.

Rotlevi 'windmill'. Rubinstein in which 1 Af6!! However, Black the whole of Black's army on decided to hold on to the pawn the seventh rank and now and after Black's queen is sure to fall Practice has shown that the incursion of two heavy pieces onto the second seventh rank is the surest way to success. It is also known that it is difficult to attack the enemy king protected by a solid pawn the pawns on f7, f6 and h7 set f o r m a t i o n. Things are up a prison rather than a different, however, when there fortress for his king.

White's a r e weaknesses called bishop on h6 acts as guard 'islands' in the pawn set-up. Now White should vs Vladmir VukoviC, But which piece? It 18 Qxf6 mate be a White knight on f6, Since a good pawn a rook on e8, or the queen on formation is particularly g4. It is interesting that important for a successful various situations could have defence, there are some typical ,ccurred in this game where attacking combinations wip- any of the pieces was capable ing out the enemy king's of inflicting the decisive defenders.

Let us consider blow. Ag4 example of the sacrificial dest- 12 Qe4 b6 ruction of the king's pawn 13 c3 QeS?

Why not take the formidable queen? Axdl After the natural 1 Wh5 f5 it would be difficult to prove 15 Qd7!! However, It seems that Black is if White disposes of Black's protected against mate on f6.

Lasker won back one Black has just refused to of the Black bishops which take the pawn on f5 and by ensured his quick victory. However, While carrying out an attack it White chose a more complex is often necessary to dispose of , and beautiful way of resolving one of the enemy pieces the conflict.

The most Black has no choice because simple way, i. A hundred years ago effective. The king hides Johannes Zukertort was behind the enemy pawn. This present cannot be But 4 WM!! The e5-pawn, and its protector, the queen at e7, are vital to the defence. So, the queen must be deflected both from e5 and the king. Now if Black accepts the lavish present, there is mate in I six - Having If now Black's queen blocks the king's retreat and allows mate on e8. So, made himself aware of White's Black resigned.

R8c5 ional play. The Endgame. Later on we shall examine playing the endgame, and you will see that this stage of the game is extremely complex and abundant in original ideas.

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However, we are now going to make an White is to move, and the attempt at convincing the first impulse is to advance the readers that combinational h-pawn but after 1 h7 e4! An endgame com- drive away the Bishop from bination, however, requires the long diagonal or block the the participation of practically advance of the e-pawn.

Let's all pieces, and the king is the try the first variant. Let us see a 1 Aa7! A well-known combinat- ional motif called 'deflection'. But it is is met by 2 h7 when There is only one Pal - After A charming masterpiece, isn't it? There were only six actors, but each has played his part to the best of his ability.

No less subtle was the At first glance, White has theatrical performance in the extracted the maximum from classical miniature published the position, but still he in a Glasgow newspaper in cannot prevent the e-pawn Utterly stunning and unexpected, It is easy to see..

N o w mate, Black has to give up his Black has two possibilities: Now there are no more checks and the rook cannot get to c 1. But the struggle is far from being over: White seems to be having a A cunning trap! Now 6 c8W hard time since it is difficult to is met by The Stalemate! Is it really a draw? Saavedra wrote in with 1 c6 bc the correction: White carries out a unique ad7. After this the Black rook mating attack with minimal gets to b5 via b4 and White forces and the a c t i v e would be in a difficult participation of the king.

This is the end. To avoid 2 Bb5!! The Endgame 83 I This typical idea is called placing the rook on d6 and eventually dancing back and You 3 b7 can set up White's pieces The situation has drastically anywhere but all your changed. Now Black is on the attempts to penetrate will be edge of a precipice since the futile. The White queen will make short work of Black's queenside pawns, but Black is unable to stop White's h-pawn.

Incidentally, if it were not for Black's fl-pawn and White's g2-pawn, Black could have saved the game by building up an impenetrable Black seems to be in danger. Stalemate proves to be the only drawing idea. Now White has a choice.

It is precisely this pawns can now move. But White manages to no defence against Wh4 or lure the king into a stalemate 9 h 5 mate. Black has hro combinations. Methods of Attack Every chess player, regardless moves to decide the game, or of his qualification there are mul ti-stage attacks, some- of amateur players , times ten or moves long.

Most feel an upsurge of inspiration often the enemy king is the when a position is reached in target of the attack. The which he can launch an attack attacking pieces try all against the enemy king. But to possible means to crush the organise an attack, one must king even at the expense of acquire the skills of positional heavy material losses.

In such play and the knowledge of cases the end, as a rule, combinational blows covered justifies the means. To illustrate such attacks, I In most games, one side, by should like to analyse two gradually accumulating minor games. First, let us look at one positional pluses, obtains a so- of my games. Kasparov some real material advantage.

Baku In such situations the best way is to proceed from slow and The opening was quite purposeful manoeuvres to tranquil. Moreover, White's pieces have become unco-ordinated. All this is sufficient compensation for the sacrificed bishop. Nevertheless, Black should be very energetic while conduct- ing the attack. Now Black has deployed all The threat was Now he Now White cannot find any could have re-established the energetic or useful moves. For material equilibrum by example, the rook still cannot capturing the rook.

However, be captured because of Black is in no hurry for this, Q xh2 mate!

White would seeing that White's pieces have been mated if the knight surrounding their own king had retreated. So, White the queen closer to the theatre has to move his rook from gl of operations brings White to to hl and back.

By After the obvious 3 1 a3 a5! White could there is no defence against the have avoided immediate decisive advance b5-b4; there- defeat, though after Qxg2 27 Bxg2 Re5 28 Wg4 However, an attack does Wxg4 29 k x g 4 f5 30 Af3 g5 it not necessarily lead to a was still difficult for White to complete rout of the enemy as defend. After 26 Wel? White has to withstand another wave of A-Alekhine-A. Rubinstein attack, both the king and Carlsbad queen becoming targets.

B x d 8 Wc2 a6 The continuation Qfs 10bd3 dc 18 Ad3! In the pawn formation defending Black's king there is a gaping hole - t h e p a w n o n h 7 has disappeared and White can place his heavy pieces on the h- file. But White must play energetically, or Black's White's positional advant- bishop will be brought to b7 in age is determined by his pawn two moves, and the attack will superiority on the queenside be neutralised.

However, Alekhine notices another pecularity of this position -the insufficient protection of Black's kingside, which enables him to launch an attack against the king. But before attacking, it is necessary to weaken the opponent's defensive lines.

This is the beginning of an effectivedeflecting manoeuvre aimed at pinning down Black's pieces, thereby depriv- ing him of mobility and creat- ing appreciable pressure on the kingside. IfS 22 Wc6! Hd7 23 g3 Wb8 If now Wd6 Alekhine queen gets to h4. For example, suggested 24 Wc4! We7 or Ab7 26 Wc4!

The rest is routine. Now he 25 ,.. Black conducting offensive operat- cannot defend fl and White's ions. Which is more important - his theory of positional play attack or defence? In present and world champion Emanuel day chess this question is Lasker achieved outstanding extremely topical, and every results, that defence came to chess player tackles it his own be appreciated and new chess way. Impetuous and inexper- masters extremely skilful in ienced players are usually keen the art of defence appeared in on clinching the issue by a the chess arena, direct attack.

Lured by the How is this problem viewed lustre of combinations, they today? The answer is clear: It is Most experienced chess play- obvious today that one cannot ers prefer strongly protected become a strong player with- formations capable of repell- out being a skilful defender. Some 20 years ago intuitive Chess fans know that the sacrifices in order to seize the attacking or the so-called initiative were common romantic style was predomin- practice in international ant in the 19th century.

At that tournaments. Nowadays time intricate methods of defensive technique bas defence were non-existent. If enhanced to such an extent your opponent sacrificed a that even a minor pawn pawn or a piece, you were sacrifice should be based on supposed t o accept the concrete variations, otherwise sacrifice and fight back the defence will take the upper afterwards.

It was only at the hand. The answer is quite Wilhtlm Steinitz formulated simple: Our forerunners, lacking in But you should do your best knowledge, used the trial and play to the bitter end. Just and error method and left us look how Lasker did it. What took Em,Lasker-A. Nimzowimh them decades of laborious St. Petersburg work is now acquired by a young chess player within a year. So, how does one learn to set up a good defence?

There are many ways and methods. We shall get acquainted with them in our lessons.

Let us begin with bad positions. Lasker used to say that any position could be defended and everyone knows Black has an extra pawn, a the popular chess proverb: Very few could have matter how hopeless a put up a stubborn defence position is some chance here. But the great Lasker, always crops up for puttingup noticing that Black's knight stubborn resistance. You must could be exchanged and the find such a chance. When your extra pawn was still doubled, opponent, anticipating an realised t h a t Black's easy win, encounters new advantage, although it was Problems and difficulties, he obvious, was not yet decisive.

Of course, if so White should wait quietly both sides play well in this and play non-committally. Now he is advantage. And this is a good banking on an easy win after incentive for strengthening 39 Bh7 Qf4!

Wg6 42 He7 Ph8! But 36 Eg7 Pf8 post-mortem and actual play White has put new obstacles are two different things. The first mistake. Having encountered stubborn resistance, Black is at a loss and seeks defence against White's activity. Capablanca tries to Despite the extra rook, bring his queen into piay and Black cannot avoid perpetual to get a passed pawn. So the game was agreed Now after 28 cb Wxb4 29 Lasker often extricated Wxa6 c4!

There is only one ions due to his fierce and road to success for White: Wc8 29 Wb6! Rubinstein, out his chess career. He was an however, chooses another excellent defender. Our next lesson will be But chess today has in Petrosian say, 50 years ago. The art of Tilburg attack.. And, this, in its turn, has caused a reciprocal reaction; in other words, the sharpening of the sword has gone hand in hand with the strengthening of the shield. To begin with, the role of active defence aimed at creating counter threats has considerably increased.

Having sacrificed a pawn in I was lucky to meet on many the opening, I managed to occasions Tigran Petrosian cramp Black's pieces. Besides, whose death was tragically it's obvious that Black's king premature. He lavishly shared is actually misplaced. The his invaluable experience with threat is a4-a5, and it's not me, and the chess encounters clear how to repel Pcb2 and with this phenomenal master Wb I. The cramped position of of defence were extremely Black's pieces makes his useful for me.

For instance. I was ate move. Having returned to Moscow, I The impression is that Black found the winning line - 33 is on the edge of the precipice, Qa3! Ab6 34 Qc2! Pa8 35 the destruction of his queen- Qb4 Wd6 36 e4! However, from Q7b6 40 f5! As you see, the now on Tigran Petrosian finds win was far from easy, and it moves that turn the whole required a lot of time; I had to game into a display of magic.

Most masters would have Ad6, giving up The only move: Wd8 the Qxd6 Wxd6 35 Wxb5 - but continuation 34 e4 fe 35 Wxe4 avoiding a catastrophe. I really don't know how would be decisive. I fears over the outcome of the could still appreciate the attack, and I decided just to attacking power of my pieces, develop my pieces occupying but after this unexpected move vantage points and hoping to I really became muddled.

So, the king not only 35 ,.. Then you will be able to repel the attack successfully and choose the appropriate moment for launching a counterattack which, in the final analysis, is Fantastic!!

The king, the most efficient method of leaving the pawn cover, defence. This is not recklessness, classical example of counter- but an example of precise attack in a brilliant game calculation.

Now White has to between two chess giants. Euwe material losses. There was Zurich salvation here, but, alas, being astounded by the fantastically resourceful defence of my opponent, I failed to find the best continuation and lost the game in a few moves. White's attack looks White resigned threatening. Nevertheless, it and rook to the h-file, so that seems that White is obviously practically all his pieces better: Wxe6 fortress. The passive defence of the king's fortress is unpromising for Black, since his pieces have Iittle, if any, scope for manoeuvre and half Black's position looks of them will not be able to critical.

If White brings his protect the king. In view of rook from a1 to fl, there will this, Euwe decides to react, as be immediate threats to the soon as possible, with strong Black king. But it is at this counterplay in the centre, juncture that Euwe finds a where his pieces are no worse stunning tactical blow based posted than White's.

Now dangerous light-squared bis- the threat is On the other hand hidden moves. This is one of several of Black's pieces the variations: Sixg2-t chess player.

The Opposition - - For most enthusiasts chess is fcmtball, are, as a rule, terminal. They It is not by chance that all believe that the fewer pieces the world champions were that remain on the chess- always willing to transpose the board, the less interesting the game into the ending and they game.

And to most of them the could play this stage of the endgame is reminiscent of a game with great strength and gloomy, barren wilderness. Emanuel Lasker, Jose What an illusion!

Raoul C a p a b l a n c a a n d The endgame, the final part Mikhail Botvinnik were of the game of chess, is endgame virtuosi. This phase of the game Ten years ago he convinced requires clockwork precision.

It seems that there is correct them in the ending. At the end of the tournament, in my game against Alburt I was Black the following position was reached after White's 45th move: At first glance it seems that Black's king cannot make headway because of stalemate But I knew that this was Black could win this game. In this position it is Sitting at the chessboard, I necessary to concede the move was checking the well-known to White, so as to create a winning method. This is achieved by threatening to get around by the distant opposition of White's king from the flank: Now it's time to White has no choice.

Therefore, the when the kings are separated king must advance in front of the pawns. In the fight for space on the chessboard one by three ranks, is a subtle method leading, in the final analysis, to a close or direct. Let It is interesting that five B o t h kings a r e i n years later at the international opposition.

The one who has tournament in the Yugoslav made the last move profits by town of NiksiC I happened to the opposition, If White i s to win a game using a similar move now, he cannot stop the met bod. If Black is to move now,he cannot oust the It is clear that Black's king White king and has to can advance to the kingside reconcile himself to a draw pawns: Now the game reached its logical end: For the third time, my knowledge of typical pawn endgame positions saved me the trouble of playing a long h-pawn is drawish.

Having triangulated, Black's king is now ready for a victorious march to c5. White has a positional The only move. The 'naturaf' advantage; the powerful But in this case, the game Hxdl irresistible. Well, experience. Black's king can extremely useful for you. You catch the passed pawn after should also read some I Attack h tk En- In our previous lesson we files and the strengthening of made a thorough study of the the shelter around his king basic principles and methods Black risks an inferior ending.

I would like to remind the readers of one of the most important rules chess players should be guided by in pawn endings. The king must strive to conquer as much space as possible, driving the opponent's king back from the centre. N o w that we have a great number of endgame manuals In this lesson we shall and reference books, all we consider the methods need 1s the desire and time to employed in endings with study chess endings.

Opening opposite-coloured bishops. The situation is positions. White places his pawns on a4 G. Gheorghiu and b5 and his king goes to d4. Moscow After the rook exchange the bishop captures the pawn on b6. The whole operation would be crowned by the White king's penetration into the queenside and the b5- pawn queening. But I found this solution easily at home when, upset by the draw, I sat down to analyse the game. His king is, course my opponent was figuratively speaking, in a surprised and glad, but I did cage, hemmed in by White's not want to continue the game bishop and pawn on h5.

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For exam- analysis at home. Now I can think how I could 41 Pc3 Ab7 ,. This pawn 47 Pg2! One year later, playing against the Danish Grand- master Bent Larsen I was playing Black I got a better ending with few pieces left on the chessboard.

Now White would have played e3, b3 and a4, and the outcome of the game would have depended on whether White's rook could penetrate the Black position. It is common knowledge that chess players learn from their mistakes. I would like to add a few words to this At first glance it would seem undoubtedly correct state- that Black has no problems in ment. Apart from studying the winning. His rook is on the reasons you lost, you should seventh rank. White's pawns study the situations in which e5 and g3 are very weak.

But you could have improved your there are very few pieces left position, but missed the best on the chessboard. Larsen continuation. These missed made a strong move opportunities in drawish or 41 h5! But, as is well known, only Therefore, it is necessary to mating moves are devoid of analyse your mistakes over drawbacks. The king is now ready to attack his opponent!

Of course! One can easily come under attack even in the endgame. The game could easily have been a draw after Qe3 42 hg hg 43 e6!

The pawn-snatching For example: White's drawing chances are The idea could almost have quite appreciable, there is no been taken from a chess clear-cut draw. White was walking on thin ice and the 46 ahl? Control now White is in danger of over f3 is the key to the coming under a mating attack. Both Now 54 e8W is met by White has exhausted after By giving Black is temporarily playing you examples from games I've with fire.

After analysing concrete examples with me. Study the endgame, and you won't be afraid of it. Make friends with the endgame, and it will become your reliable ally. It is impossible to up unassailable fortresses, drive away Black's king from pawn chains being the basic e7. As to the bishop, it can building blocks for them. Let safely manoeuvre along the us analyse the ending of the a5-el diagonal. Since all the game played in Georgia's events are centred around the Women's Championship black squares, one of White's between masters Tsiuri bishops is absolutely useless Kobaidze and Mzia Tseretei.

Another brilliant fortress could have been built up in the game between the ex-world champion Max Euwe White and the Canadian Daniel I1 Yanofsky at the big internat- ional tournament at Groning- en in Black's knight is doomed. The 'natural' It took Black only two moves to draw the game. Two brilliant moves! Black now had to lose a pawn to prevent the a5-pawn from queening.

Ad3 White king's assistance. If, however, White's king pawns, but endings with occupies c5, then Black's king opposite-coloured bishops are must be posted on e6. And if quite peculiar we encounter- White's king stays in place, ed one in our previous lesson what is the best square for and sometimes a material Black's king?

Those who have advantage does not ensure f o l l o w e d o u r analysis victory. Black embarks on attentively will undoubtedly building up a fortress and he is answer: No doubt the quite successful at first.

Canadian master saw However, Yanofsky Actually, the fortress has decided that the king should 1 been built, but it is necessary not necessarily move to the 1 to know its exact dimensions. This was cannot advance without the his fatal mistake!

I I2 Fortresses on the Chessboard a8 is inevitable: But could Black have prevented White's king from getting to f5 by playing Let us analyse another ending with opposite- coloured bishops.

In such positions the superior side should try to create passed pawns on both flanks, If it is possible, the king will assist one of the pawns, and victory will be ensured. Let us consider an elementary example illustrating another At first glance, White has method of destroying chess not improved his position, and fortresses.

Ag2 19 h5! Nevertheless, there is no trace of a fortress here, you need only make three moves: Here is one classical methods of defence in the fortress with the king in the endgame. There is one more corner of the chessboard. Put Black's king on a8, White's king on b6, and White's pawn on the 'a-file'. You will easily see that Black's king is comfortably posted on a8 and there is no chance of I queening. The most amazing fact is that even with White's i black-squared bishop, it is still a draw.

Qg2 and Part I of this series saw Kasparov emerging as a huge talent and eventually toppling his great rival Anatoly Karpov to gain the world title. This period also saw Kasparov achieve spectacular results in both individual and team events. Kasparov won the board gold medal in three Olympiads Dubai , Thessaloniki and Manila During the late s and early s Kasparov emphasized his huge superiority over his rivals.

Despite generally adopting an uncompromising, double-edged attacking style he almost never lost. The games in this volume feature many masterpieces of controlled aggression played against the world's absolute best. The first two volumes in this series saw Kasparov emerging as a huge talent, toppling his great rival Anatoly Karpov and then defending the World Championship title on three occasions.

This third volume focuses on the final 12 years of Kasparov's career up until his retirement from full-time chess in This period witnessed three further World Championship matches: wins against Short London and Anand New York before the loss against Kramnik London which finally ended Kasparov's year tenure as world champion.

This period also saw Kasparov achieve a colossal rating , a record which stood until Despite loss of the World Championship, Kasparov continued to be ranked as the world number one and dominated the elite tournament circuit. He won the Linares super-tournament for four consecutive years with the fourth of these victories in concluding an unprecedented run of ten straight wins in the world's elite events Linares 4, Wijk aan Zee 3, Sarajevo 2 and Astana 1. In the series are included courses in tactics, strategy, openings, middle game, and endgame, split by levels from beginners to experienced players, and even professional players.

With the help of this course, you can improve your chess knowledge, learn new tactical tricks and combinations, and consolidate the acquired knowledge into practice. The program acts as a coach who gives tasks to solve and helps to solve them if you get stuck.Apart from studying the winning. Kasparov assumed a leadership role. The art of Tilburg attack.. White has to withstand another wave of A-Alekhine-A. Gheorghiu and b5 and his king goes to d4.

Labouring under the illusion that the advantage of two bishops permits him to open up the centre, Black, still conspicuously underdevelop- ed, makes serious concessions in the centre. A white rook and a move to the centre of the pawn confront a bishop and a board, and in 99 cases out of knight. You must could be exchanged and the find such a chance. The old ing for ignoring development analysis is a good illustration and devouring pawns in the of the disastrous consequen- opening.

His also tries to restrain White's pawns are to open the lines for p a w n c h a i n , but not the major pieces, and the successfully.

JINNY from Murrieta
I enjoy reading comics absentmindedly . Review my other articles. I am highly influenced by quidditch.