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Space-Based Astronomy—An Educator Guide with This striking NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture shows three rings of glowing gas encircling the site of. Books Enquire within THE CAMBRIDGE OF S P A C E ENCYCLOPEDIA Edited by Michael Rycroft Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, , pp, £ This specialist online reference work represents an ambitious collection of the underlying physical principles of rockets, satellites and space stations.
During this present day. Galileo did much to disprove ancient Greek theories of rings A and B now known physics. It is a tiny star in orbit around the bright star Sirius. The you can find out more about a particular subject. About 10 percent of all the stars in the galaxy may be compare the features of planets. This is the burned. If the core of the burned-out star is heavier than Italian mathematician. There is a Find Out More box for each entry. Giovanni Cassini As professor of mathematics at the Universities of Pisa and discovered the gap between Padua.
Its atmosphere helps to make it the hottest planet of all. Carbon dioxide It is kept hot by the white means that the gravitational field number indicates a major entry. This box Jupiter had four satellites. On learning of the invention of the telescope. It a Timeline.
It spins slowly. It has technology used for studying and for two moons. A person standing on a white dwarf would weigh about tons. The biographies tell Church. This page on is exhausted. Most give landmarks of looked at Saturn through Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Galileo no more nuclear fuel to burn and exploring space. Once restricted to logging the light coming from celestial objects. Electronics and computers have also revolutionized the collection of data and its analysis.
Space probes sent to other worlds have changed this a little. Solid state while electronic cameras record data recorders exquisite views of the cosmos. In space. Speed Hubble is control in sight. Hubble carries the type of equipment found on many satellites: All signals to and from Hubble pass through Diameter 14 ft this center. The engineers Mass From its high orbit. Length 43 ft electronic camera.
Launched in after decades of planning. Faint Object Camera is very sensitive. Hubble found the atmosphere. Hubble has a clear view of evidence for a massive black everything in the universe. After the Space Shuttle Columbia was destroyed in an accident in Light is reflected from the main mirror to the secondary.
Hubble detected Second high-gain antenna the galaxy containing an energetic gamma-ray burster—the most powerful explosion ever observed. Hubble Solar arrays provide power by converting sunlight into 21 ft 6. Its reflector is the Eagle Nebula. Hubble Space Telescope. NASA will use an observatory in It will operate distant galaxies. NASA began to build Hubble. There were visits in When crucial parts fail and the keeps bright sunlight from spoiling images.
They collect light with a mirror. The lens will around horizontally. The mirror surface on the Gemini Telescope is Mirror is so smooth that if the ft 8-m Lens polished to an accuracy of mirror were the diameter of Earth.
Lenses are also heavy: There are two types of telescope. Lens Concave lens c Dorling Kindersley. Reflectors have two key advantages over refractors. Main mirror is 26 ft 8 m in diameter. Mirror because a mirror can be supported at the cell back. The image is upside down. They must different colors at colors are focused different points. Refractors are robust and useful for Observing platform Whole telescope viewing bright objects.
This means the data-recording equipment does not have to be a part of the moving telescope. The twin Gemini telescopes. A telescope captures as segments. It is designed to record the spectra of stars much light as possible—the more light it and galaxies and does not collects.
Museum Open frame display lessens weight. Long exposures produce the 12 moonwidths he was the first to realize best data for analysis. There are two main types of mounting: Eyepiece Altazimuth mounting allows big telescopes to be mounted horizontally. His reflecting main mirror. North-south position is fixed for viewing a particular star. Light is focused onto a battery of instruments waiting to record the data. It has to support the weight of the telescope polar Polar axis aligned and to swing it around as Earth spins on its axis.
Though originally invented to secondary take photographs. Mirror Telescope swings around horizontally. They collect Eyepiece light with a concave mirror. He concluded that Light is reflected from the main lenses would always form mirror towards secondary mirror. They are especially useful for conducting surveys. Main lens Jupiter. His telescopes mirror were no more powerful than toys.
As a result. The other is size: The telescopes themselves weigh collecting area 17 times greater than tons metric tons and stand eight the Hubble Space Telescope. The telescope mirrors measure 33 ft 10 m across—giving them a light- collecting area half the size of a tennis court. They are mounted on lightweight can see more clearly.
Hubble stories tall. Magnum Mirror Telescope 21 ft Arizona Formerly had 6 mirrors Walter Baade and Landon Clay 21 ft each Chile Identical telescopes adjusting each segment twice a second to an Bolshoi Teleskop Azimutalnyi 20 ft Russia First large altazimuth accuracy that is a thousand times finer than a Large Zenith Telescope 20 ft Canada Liquid mercury mirror human hair. But mirrors more than 26 ft 8 m in diameter have limitations. The latest ground- based telescopes use ingenious solutions to get around these limitations.
Each segment weighs lb kg. A computer controls the mirrors. A single mirror this size would bend under its own weight. One is the atmosphere: With the atmosphere constantly moving. In adaptive optics. A computer when it started operation figures out how the light from the artificial in By collecting light for one hour. The four telescopes have been given names in the local Mapuche language: Antu The Sun. Melipal The Southern Cross. They can be combined in a special mode to resolve fine detail on bright objects.
Kueyen The Moon. Located at Las Campanas in Chile. When completed in about It was the first in the ft m class of telescopes. It is a thin silicon chip with picture above. The human eye is simply not a good enough light detector.
When light falls on a pixel. CCDs are more sensitive than photographic plates: Charged pixel Signal to computer c Dorling Kindersley. At the end of the exposure. Every positive charge. CCD from a big telescope. They are taken with electronic cameras built around a light-sensitive computer chip called a charge-coupled device CCD. Spectrographs split up light by its wavelengths to reveal the strength of each. To obtain enough a pixel ejects information to make an image in natural negatively colors.
This creates dark absorption lines on the spectrum. Old absorption photographic surveys remain important archives. The wavelength from to Red spectrum is crossed by bright or dark lines at nanometers nm. Visible light is a etched with thousands of closely spaced lines to mixture of colors ranging in spread out light into a spectrum of colors.
They take image through a great variety of filters that pick Sodium — out different wavelengths. CCDs are sensitive to infrared radiation. The shortest wavelength. Electronic instruments with digital imaging devices Sodium have completely replaced photography. Computers are also used Light from a hot star travels out to control every aspect of running telescopes. The power of spectroscopy lies in analyzing these lines to reveal the elements Violet nm Hydrogen gas that are present in the object and how hot it is.
In spectroscopy. The Hubble Space Telescope also flies in space for sharper views. New technology enabled astronomers to gamma rays tune in to all the radiation coming from objects in space—and not simply light.
Sources include black holes. Traveling at It is like hearing a Energetic regions of the universe single note from a melody: Tuning in to invisible waves of energy. Light Very hot gas in clusters of galaxies emits forms just one part of a whole range of X-rays. Invisible atmosphere has astronomy has only come of age since scientists absorbed all radiation Balloon carrying gamma have been able to intercept radiation in space.
Different radiations nanometers billionths of a meter. Stars give out visible light. Radio waves are produced by electrons zooming through the magnetic fields of Lobes of radio galaxy distant radio galaxies. Radio waves are emitted by many have wavelengths between comes from objects with objects.
These are light and shorter radio waves. X-rays and gamma rays penetrate far enough to be recorded by detectors on balloons.
They reach temperatures up to around active galaxies to the Big Bang itself. As its name suggests. We would be able to pick out young from stars at 5. In a normally hidden by tiny grains of dust in space— universe where gas clouds can be as hot as a million degrees.
Satellites Far infrared can only It covers a much wider part of the are best. By using infrared telescopes. Young stars. Some of the shorter and longer wavelengths.
An infrared Telescope Facility camera. Cooler objects emit the most radiation. Using infrared. Sea level He called this invisible radiation infrared. It could not observe after the coolant ran out. Electronic detonators Cool dust clouds shine in the far infrared. These to the sky. Its mirror is 8 ft 2.
The Cambridge encyclopedia of space
In IRAS the denser regions. It carried three instruments. Cool glow from the Big Bang emits submillimeter wavelengths. Science area with computer Mirror. To optical telescopes. Sir William Herschel found that high-precision radio a thermometer registered heat when placed telescopes.
In contrast. Spitzer Space including vast clouds of dust and gas stretching hundreds of light- Infrared years across the constellation of Orion.
This helped minimize the effects of heat from Earth so it could carry less coolant. Scientists often refer to radio waves by frequency—the number Interstellar clouds of hot gas emit short radio waves. Telescopes perched on mountains seek out millimeter wavelengths. No one is allowed to broadcast at the wavelengths used to study the universe. Even so. The shorter WMAP the wavelength. These include the remains of supernovas. In most universe.
Dish radio telescopes. Radio telescopes can more detail the radio The antenna produces electrical signals also track down molecules in space.
The bigger the dish. The 27 dishes of the Very Large Array can be moved along three railroad tracks to a distance of 22 miles 36 km apart. They produce radio waves of a type called synchrotron radiation.
British scientist The two lobes of a distant Stanley Hey — A single line of telescopes—or even the Y-shape found strong radio outbursts radio galaxy are visible only to a radio telescope.
To reveal more detail. As the solar system. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered Lovell Telescope Arecibo 90 miles Rotating Earth the faint echo of heat from km 6 hours turns the telescopes the Big Bang—the cosmic around. Martin Ryle suggested a solution. In the s. Without moving the telescopes. Australian radio astronomers identified the snapshot view full of holes. Tony Hewish 12 hours. Wavelengths between 10 and 91 nm are called extreme ultraviolet. Ultraviolet can the extreme ultraviolet wavelengths so strongly that it acts as a fog that hides also reveal what is in the hot.
A star that is hotter than In everyday life. Distant galaxies wind. An ultraviolet image. German physicist Johann Ritter — cool to emit extreme ultraviolet. The hottest areas look almost white. The invisible radiation lying glowing gas reveals the shape of the magnetic field. The bright spots are clusters of massive stars. Atoms in an ultraviolet observatory shine most brilliantly in the upper atmosphere are on the Moon in XMM-Newton carries called grazing incidence three X-ray telescopes.
The atmospheres of the Sun and similar stars shine only Supernova remnant faintly in X-rays. Each one contains 58 mirrors. They can be reflected only if they hit a metal surface at a very shallow angle.
X-rays are a very short. Electrons in quasar jet wavelength. The shortest X-rays carry the Even the most km most energy. So X-ray detectors must be carried beyond the 0. Launched in It is able to detect millions of objects— cylinder mirror.
X-ray sources. The Exosat 2 x 0. Name Size in Dates Country between grids. Chandra Puppis A is 6. Chandra X-ray 1. Astronomers use two types and wavelength of X-rays. Brighter areas show light-years across. About Its high. Scorpius X Science of very hot gas. XMM-Newton constellation Vela. Solar array to quasars. Optical successively hotter telescopes can barely detect it. Puppis A.
At its massive cluster of galaxies brightest. Fermi Flashes where gamma rays are Payload module carries Optical camera absorbed in upper atmosphere Altitude at which gamma rays are the scientific instruments. Each flash lasts only a few billionths of a second and particles colliding at almost the speed of light. Interstellar gas clouds glow at gamma-ray wavelengths. A Cerenkov detector of all. Even the longest gamma rays. An X-ray monitor and optical camera Observatory.
It carries help to identify gamma-ray sources. No star or gas cloud is hot enough to shine collects light like an ordinary telescope. Integral is a survey instrument. There is no lower limit to gamma-ray wavelengths: It carries four main instruments.
Such short-wavelength gamma rays are uncommon. Large Magellanic Cloud contains many pulsars and black holes. Vela 5A. The third strongest gamma-ray source. Unidentified source Among them are bright points. The mask is absorbs gamma rays. Whole sky map from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Red shows the strongest gamma-ray sources. Geminga was discovered. The position of this shadow can show the Gamma rays trigger sparks.
Geminga is the nearest neutron star. Some are Cygnus X We see none of the usual stars and Center of the Milky constellations. Quasar 3C They include particles of dark matter. Lower-energy particles include electrons and neutrinos. It may be a star dying as a supernova. Such explosions generate all kinds of radiation. Most are nuclei of hydrogen protons. Other messengers are predicted by theory. Otherwise the air raining down over several records the more ground pick up most shower has an oval shape that reveals the square miles.
The most energetic cosmic rays come from the centers of quasars. But more exotic messengers are also crisscrossing the cosmos. Energy single detector in space would intercept from the collision creates several very few. Astronomers have studied cosmic rays actually high-energy particles for many decades. Underground detector Detectors on shower is circular. But they also spew into space a range of more exotic particles and waves that carry Incoming cosmic ray unique information about this astrophysical chaos.
The ray is heading vertically downward. If the cosmic lower in the atmosphere. Others are sent speeding through space by supernova explosions. With no electric charge and virtually no mass. Neutrino telescopes often use a huge tank of water to trap a tiny fraction of the particles passing through.
Neutrinos Astronomers in rubber are born in the hottest places of all. Austrian physicist Victor Hess deforming a rubber sheet. Detector is sited underground to keep out other types of particle. Gravitational waves gravity—the equivalent of bouncing the ball spreading out from a large explosion and sending ripples out across the sheet.
Cosmic acts of — launched violence. LISA will detect it. On small scales. South Dakota. It has totally changed our lives—in fact. The attendant breakthroughs in miniaturization and computer power can be appreciated by anyone with a personal computer. Hundreds of people have now flown in space and even walked on the Moon—and with the completion of the International Space Station. Space is also a human frontier. Farther afield.
Main engine nozzle of opposite to the force action of combustion booster is at Liftoff chamber the escaping exhaust. If the chamber seconds. Liquid helium both mass and the pull of gravity pressurizes the fuel tanks. After about 2 minutes. The extra tons produced a thrust at liftoff equivalent to metric tons of thrust available allows the 32 Boeing s at takeoff. Gravity Fuel pipe delivers liquid oxygen to main engine combustion chamber. These engines tons.
Because they cannot escape main engine upward.
As fuel burns during the ascent. The whole a small engine releases the satellite into orbit. Every second for the first seconds of at liftoff comes from a main engine and two their journey. Gases are allowed to escape through a Exhaust nozzle of nozzle. The mass of the rocket on the ground is tons metric tons. Mass is the same everywhere. With Thrust increased distance from the Earth. Gravity and weight on the ground and the therefore weight decrease with distance from Earth.
Upper payload carry satellites above the atmosphere and release them Liquid with enough horizontal force Liquid hydrogen oxygen tank to remain in orbit. This speed is called the escape velocity. All the through the atmosphere. The action of Solid fuel boosters take over. But in the giant inside the casing Saturn V launcher. It also Imagine a bullet fired fierce combustion and powerful protects the payload. After two minutes. Gravity forces are harnessed to lift a pulls it vertically toward Earth.
In than others. For a satellite. Some sufficient horizontal force. Ariane 5 has force acting upon it divided a main stage boosted by two solid by its mass.
For a rocket. If it operates correctly. The exhaust expels an produces the maximum acceleration is three times that of almost invisible plume cloud of chemicals gravity 3 g.
At liftoff. The external tank carries liquid attachments. Each space and returning booster weighs 92 tons 83 metric tons. About 1. Fuel and cannot be stopped. The propellant contains fuel and the oxidant fuel needs to burn and release Solid-fuel boosters energy. Rockets carry their own oxidant burn for just over 2 minutes. Both solid and liquid propellants are boosters and external tank by special used.
It occurs briefly before the of water vapor. After into space. The solid fuel is engines for maneuvering in in the boosters on either side of the orbiter. His work later Time casing.
Nozzle needed to burn the fuel. The Length 11 ft 3. If the burning surface area decreases. Thrust Nozzle Liquid hydrogen and Increasing thrust: It was lifted which 1 kg 2. If the pellets are packed so that the surface area where burning occurs Flight time 2. Such Decreasing thrust: Burning occurs along the and burn in length of the hollow area.
As it eats away at the combustion chamber. The Thrust burn rate. The pellets also contain First test flight March It was the first solid rocket fuel. Propellant Even thrust: If it is packed so that the surface burns at a Propellant mass 4.
Proton launches large satellites. This is crucial for launching the new Ten minutes later. After five seconds. The Proton family of launchers has placed large satellites in orbit since Proton has of reliability contributed to the Delta family being called three stages. Pegasus can launch 1. One of the main decisions facing spacecraft owners is which launch vehicle should place their craft into orbit.
The latest addition to the spacecraft on interplanetary journeys. Delta II can launch 1. Asiasat beams television and telephone signals to Asia and the Pacific. They can place II since Air launch rockets. Like car manufacturers.
The aircraft releases the rocket above open ocean. For such launches. The heavy-lift launchers are favored for sending space missions on interplanetary journeys or satellites into a high geostationary Delta rockets ferry orbit above Earth.
Even if the launcher has the lift capacity. Other on their historic countries launch their own rockets. November 9. NASA combined a Titan rocket with the upper mission. The combination sent the Europe. Europe It placed the first satellite. Nearly all orders for launchers go stage of a Centaur rocket.
Moon landing: July In the weeks before launch. Russian rockets supplying the International Space Station are launched from there. They can Lbe small sites. Then giant platforms lumber to the pad carrying the assembled launcher.
It is close to the equator and therefore favorable for placing satellites into the Vandenberg geostationary orbit directly Kennedy above the equator. The first launch from the Alcantara Kourou launch center in Equator Brazil was in The The very first satellite. There is a 2. Scattered around the site are the control room from which mission specialists oversee the final countdown. Geography is also important. It can launch a During the first 40 years of the space age. It is also best to have a Tanegashima February Xichang January Launches to San Marco April The launcher is towed to a safe.
About an hour before liftoff. Observation lounge of the launcher in the final Jupiter control room assembly building about eight days before liftoff. For a launch on Ariane Three teams monitor the status of Kourou takes 11 days. Four computers in the foreground are reserved for senior Director of operations DDO authorizes Launch team leader Deputy launch team personnel from the French and European final countdown: During this final countdown.
French Guiana. When all report status green.. The launch campaign for Ariane 5. Without the water. Five hours before launch. Main ignition We have liftoff! A tower supplies water at the rate of 1. A service unit on the launch table keeps Ariane 5 cool during its trip to the launchpad.
The flight program is loaded into the two onboard computers and the program initiated to check radio links between the launcher and the ground. The day before liftoff. Propellant fuel and oxidant is piped into the launcher at the pad. Six minutes before liftoff.
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Two techniques types of orbit. A geostationary orbit is Antenna feed radiates radio signals that reflect Highly elliptical orbit Low-Earth orbit off the dish. This allows people to track the satellite. They come in toward its receiving station. An elliptical detect a wobble orbit has a much lower altitude at in the satellite. Designers must take care that the dish does not destabilize the satellite. The result is spin- from the satellites. The Moon. The This increases the measurements.
A spinning top is operating correctly. Whichever orbit they follow. The antenna dish must always point to Earth. A nearly circular low-Earth orbit is up to miles km above Earth. Polar orbits are often miles If sensors km high. In the early days of satellites. Many communications satellites Antenna for occupy geostationary orbit. These are often cylindrical in shape. It sent cells in a panel and always face no telemetry.
Geostationary Weather. On satellites. If the and the orbit it occupies. In addition. It found hints of light falls on them. The method of stabilization way that they always keep the satellite in the depends on the job the satellite has to do same orientation to the Earth and Sun. The forces exerted on a satellite can be used to maintain stability in space. It sent pictures showed that the satellite had to Earth for two months.
Satellite platform navigation carries Polar Weather. These data satellite. Satellite footprint might cover a whole continent or one small country. Satellites in GEO above the equator always seem to stay over the same spot on Earth. They contain a chain of electronic connect distant places and make communication components. A telephone call from Europe to the US.
Since the s. Thanks to communications satellites.
All About Space Book Of The Solar System
The satellite would space. Tand the internet can all be relayed by communications satellites. They satellite fall on Earth with a known as the Earth station. Earth stations can from the satellite. These components possible with remote areas. Clarke first suggested GEO for Earth station. Many are in clean up radio signals.
They remain in sight of the same Science fiction author Arthur C. This pattern in large buildings. Antennas within the footprint can telephone calls are transmitted to and sea. Earth stations can be housed are key to an Earth particular pattern. They appear stationary because a satellite Three satellites. These satellites are much closer to Earth than GEO satellites.
Antenna dish sends and Red lines are the receives signals. Transponder Half-circuit is located Communications Green dots show where each satellite is a two-way inside the downlink is on its orbit at a particular moment. Uplink and communications satellite. Earth station and White circles are satellite a satellite. Communications satellites in region on Earth. Earth stations. LEO can be cheaper for applications. Intelsat III 4 or 1. When the solar panels are fully open. System Glonass was developed by Russia.
Each satellite carries atomic clocks for time accurately. The plotted on a map. Using this. Thrusters keep the satellite orientated correctly toward Earth.
GPS developed in the US had become the most reliable and accurate navigation system ever. Ground antennas transmit these positions to the satellites for broadcasting to Earth.
When clouds obscure the sky. In addition to position. Satellites precisely when the signal was sent and when it transmit radio waves that can be detected on arrived. The GPS receiver knows systems have solved this problem.
The satellites are designed to last for seven and a half years. Tracking stations send this information to the Master Control Center.
For thousands of years. The satellites broadcast their positions calculated their positions using the Moon. With this information. Known as yards.
They are spaced in orbits so that a and Sun. Satellite navigation from at least four satellites. By satellites. By There are four satellites enabling accurate time signals to in each GPS orbit. Cesium Number of satellites 31 30 clocks lose only a second every Number of orbits 6 3 million years. Smaller atomic Altitude The US Car manufacturers and owners install launched it in January to GPS receivers to aid route planning— improve position location of 15 percent of all cars in Europe use Polaris nuclear submarines.
The center distributes storm and hurricane warnings for the Caribbean. One notorious hurricane killed Geostationary satellites scan 6.
They record the images that appear nightly on our television screens. Miami keeps a hour watch of all satellite data. Hurricanes are the region beneath them every extreme tropical storms with wind speeds 30 minutes.
In in more detail every 15 minutes. Meteorology satellites also carry instruments that take readings. As storms develop. Now weather satellites constantly view temperature. If a tropical storm develops. Before weather satellites existed. Cosmos With its Japanese and US counterparts. Black areas are land while other colors represent cooler water surrounding April 25 May 25 the warm current.
It data over Europe temperatures. Polar Satellites in geostationary orbit satellites. The computers also combine back to space. It in the atmosphere. GOES satellites are recorded By analyzing such images.
NASA launched constant view of the same region. The book is not a classical encyclopedia in that its entries do not appear a l p h a b e t i c a l l y ; r a t h e r it takes a thematic approach to subjects covered, starting with the ancient history of humanity's dream of spaceflight which contains interesting sections on the theme in fiction - and early versions of the rocket.
While these were largely for military purposes, one was apparently used to power whalers' harpoons in the 19th century. Hard facts The second part covers the reality of getting into space via propulsion, launchers and satellite systems and also includes data on national launch sites, space agencies and the hazards of space debris. Next, exploration and science is examined. Here the temptation to OD on arty photographs taken in space of planets and stars is resisted - far more of the pictures show details or diagrams of exploratory craft and instruments.
The final section deals with living in space, a broad subject divided into satellite applications, humans in space and space industry. Tacked on to the end of this are short sections on the military dimension and international law as it relates to outer space. One might not expect law to be lengthily covered in a general tome, but given that over half of all space activity still contains a military component it is somewhat surprising that only 16 pages are devoted to military programmes here.
The Encyclopedia is fun to dip into. The serious researcher might find it harder to extract specific information from the thematic format, however though the information is probably there - but the layperson with an interest in space should find it a jolly good read. Since this is what it sets out to be, the book can be said to have succeeded.
This volume nearly coincides with a region of space known as the Local Bubble , which is characterized by a lack of dense, cold clouds. The two Viking missions to Mars in Orbit combined an orbiter and a lander. Speed Like car manufacturers. But even at this speed. Subentries provide important additional its core shrinks and the star expands once again.
Some sufficient horizontal force.